A New Learning Control System for Basketball Free Throws Based on Real Time Video Image Processing and Biofeedback


  • R. Sarang Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • M. R. Jahed Motlagh Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • A. A. Tehrani Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • M. Pouladian Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Volume: 8 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 2405-2411 | February 2018 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1415


Shooting free throws plays an important role in basketball. The major problem in performing a correct free throw seems to be inappropriate training. Training is performed offline and it is often not that persistent. The aim of this paper is to consciously modify and control the free throw using biofeedback. Elbow and shoulder dynamics are calculated by an image processing technique equipped with a video image acquisition system. The proposed setup in this paper, named learning control system, is able to quantify and provide feedback of the above parameters in real time as audio signals. Therefore, it yielded to performing a correct learning and conscious control of shooting. Experimental results showed improvements in the free throw shooting style including shot pocket and locked position. The mean values of elbow and shoulder angles were controlled approximately on 89o and 26o, for shot pocket and also these angles were tuned approximately on 180o and 47o respectively for the locked position (closed to the desired pattern of the free throw based on valid FIBA references). Not only the mean values enhanced but also the standard deviations of these angles decreased meaningfully, which shows shooting style convergence and uniformity. Also, in training conditions, the average percentage of making successful free throws increased from about 64% to even 87% after using this setup and in competition conditions the average percentage of successful free throws enhanced about 20%, although using the learning control system may not be the only reason for these outcomes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable and real time applicable.


learning, control, free throw, basketball, image processing, biofeedback, shot pocket, locked position


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How to Cite

R. Sarang, M. R. Jahed Motlagh, A. A. Tehrani, and M. Pouladian, “A New Learning Control System for Basketball Free Throws Based on Real Time Video Image Processing and Biofeedback”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2405–2411, Feb. 2018.


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