An Appraisal of Asia-Pacific Cities as Control and Command Centres Embedded in World City Network


  • Z. Li Geography Section, School of Humanities,Universiti Sains Malaysia,Penang, Malaysia
  • S. R. S. Dawood Geography Section, School of Humanities,Universiti Sains Malaysia,Penang, Malaysia
  • X. Zhang TESOL, School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Volume: 7 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 1879-1882 | August 2017 |


Since the globalization trend is proliferating at a staggering rate, world cities have emerged as the most dominant vanguard incorporated into global economy. Control and command function is one of the robust integral parts of world city formation, which is closely associated with the corporate headquarter status of some dominant multinational companies. Previous research works on this topic tend to concentrate on the Western Europe and North American arenas neglecting the Asia-Pacific region. Hence, the objective of this paper is to explore control and command functions of Asia-Pacific cities with reference to headquarters’ locations of multinational companies. The methodology will utilize the Forbes global 2000 dataset from the seminal study of GaWC research group, and apply the control and command center model and the interlocking city network model to discover the control and command index, as well as network connectivity of Asia-Pacific cities. Based upon the empirical study of this research, we could identify the hierarchical structure and spatial structure of Asia-Pacific world cities to emerge as some control and command centers embedded in world city network.


Control and Command Center, World City Network, Globalization, Multinational Companies Headquarters, Forbes Global 2000


Download data is not yet available.


A. Alderson, J. Beckfield, “Power and Position in the World City System”, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 109, No. 4, pp. 811-851, 2004 DOI:

J. V. Beaverstock, R. G. Smith, P. J. Taylor, “World-City Network: A New Metageography?”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp. 123-134, 2000 DOI:

G. Csomós, “The command and control centers of the United States (2006/2012): An analysis of industry sectors influencing the position of cities”, Geoforum, Vol. 50, pp. 241-251, 2013 DOI:

G. Csomós, B. Derudder, “European cities as command and control centres, 2006–11”, European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 345-352, 2014 DOI:

B. Derudder, P. J. Taylor, F. Witlox, G. Catalano, “Hierarchical tendencies and regional patterns in the world city network: A global urban analysis of 234 cities”, Regional Studies, Vol. 37, No. 9, pp. 875-886, 2003 DOI:

J. Friedmann, “The World City Hypothesis. Development and Change”, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 69-83, 1986 DOI:

[7] Godfrey, B. J., & Zhou, Y. , "Ranking world cities: Multinational corporations and the global urban hierarchy. Urban Geography", Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 268-281, 1999 DOI:

Z. Li, S. R. S. Dawood, “World City Network in China: A Network Analysis of Air Transportation Network. Modern Applied Science”, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 213-223, 2016 DOI:

“World Cities Formation in China: A Comparative Study of Five Pre-Eminent Cities", Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 7 No.6, pp. 387-396, 2016

S. Sassen, “The global city: strategic site/new frontier”, American Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2/3, pp. 79-95

S. Sassen,T he global city: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton University Press, 2001 DOI:

J. R. Short, Y. Kim, M. Kuus, H. Wells, “The dirty little secret of world cities research: Data problems in comparative analysis”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 697-717, 1996 DOI:

P. J. Taylor, “Specification of the world city network”, Geographical Analysis, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 181-194, 2001 DOI:

P. J. Taylor, G. Catalano, D. R. F. Walker, “Measurement of the world city network”, Urban Studies, Vol. 39, No. 13, pp. 2367-2376, 2002 DOI:

P. J. Taylor, G. Csomós, “Cities as control and command centres: Analysis and interpretation”, Cities, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 408-411, 2012 DOI:

P. J. Taylor, P. Ni, B. Derudder, M. Hoyler, J. Huang, F. Lu, D. Bassens, “The way we were: command-and-control centres in the global space-economy on the eve of the 2008 geoeconomic transition”, GaWC Research Bulletin, pp. 289, 2008 DOI:

S. X. B. Zhao, J. M. Cai, L. Zhang, “Asymmetric information as a key determinant for locational choice of MNC headquarters and the development of financial centers: A case for China”, China Economic Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 308-331, 2005 DOI:

L. Zeyun, S. R. S. Dawood, “Development of the Regional Financial Centers in China: A Quantitative Study Based on the Province-level Data”, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 3 S1, pp. 374-382, 2016 DOI:


How to Cite

Z. Li, S. R. S. Dawood, and X. Zhang, “An Appraisal of Asia-Pacific Cities as Control and Command Centres Embedded in World City Network”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1879–1882, Aug. 2017.


Abstract Views: 552
PDF Downloads: 216

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)