Effect of Applied Pressure on the Mechanical Properties of 6061 Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints Prepared by Friction Stir Welding

J. A. Al-jarrah, A. Ibrahim, S. Sawlaha


This paper investigates the effect of axial force on the surface appearance and mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy welded joints prepared by friction stir welding. The applied pressure varies from 1.44 to 10.07 MPa. The applied pressure was calculated from the axial force which exerted by a spring loaded cell designed for this purpose. Defect free joints obtained at an applied pressure of 3.62 MPa. The mechanical properties of the welded joints were evaluated through microhardness and tensile tests at room temperature. From this investigation, it was found that the joint produced with an applied pressure of 5.76 MPa exhibits superior tensile strength compared to other welded joints. The fracture of this joint happened at the base material.


friction stir welding; aluminum alloys; applied pressure; mechanical properties

Full Text:



L. P. Troger, E.A Straka, “Microstructural and mechanical characterization of superplastic 6xxx aluminum alloy”, Material Science and Engineering, Vol. A277, No.1, pp. 102-113, 2000

T. Evern, B. Ogel, “Influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of A6066 alloy”, Turkish J. Eng. Env. Sci., Vol. 31, pp. 53-60, 2007

K. Rohit, K. Ratnesh, R. Singh, A. K. Bajpai, “Mechanical properties of friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, Vol. 2, No. 8, pp. 74-80, 2013

Y. M. Zhang, C. Pan, A. T. Male, “Improved microstructure and properties of 6061aluminum alloy weldments using double sided arc welding process”, Metallurgical and Material Transaction A, Vol. 31A, No. 10, pp. 2537-2543, 2000

N. Shanmuga Sundaram, N. Murugan, “Tensile behavior of dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys”, Materials and Design, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp. 4184–4193, 2010

G. Elatharasana, V. S. Senthil Kumarb, “An experimental analysis and optimization of process parameter on friction stir welding of AA 6061-T6 aluminum alloy using RSM”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 64, pp. 1227-1234, 2013

K. Elangovan, V. Balasubramanian, S. Babu, “Predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints by a mathematical model”, Materials and Design, Vol. 30, pp.188- 193, 2009

J. A. Al-Jarrah, S. Sawalha, T. A. Abumansour, M. Ibrahim, M. Al-Rashdan, D. A. Al-Qahsi, “Welding quality and mechanical properties of aluminum joints prepared by friction stir welding”, Material and design, Vol. 56, pp. 929-936, 2014

T. Hirata, T. Oguri, H. Hagino, T. Tanaka, S. W. Chung, Y. Takigawa, K. Higashi, “Influence of friction stir welding parameters on grain size and formability in 5083 aluminum alloy”, Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 456, No. 1-2, pp. 344-349, 2007

R. D. By, R. Fu, R. C. Sun, F. C. Zhang, H. J. Liu, “Improvement of formation quality for friction stir welded joints”, Welding Journal, Vol. 91, No. 6, pp. 169-173, 2012

S. Rajakumar, C. Muralidharan, V. Balasubramanian, “Influence of friction stir welding process and tool parameters on strength properties of AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy joints”, Materials and Design, Vol. 32, pp. 535-549, 2011

S. Rajakumar, C. Muralidharan, V. Balasubramanian, “Establishing empirical relationships to predict grain size and tensile strength of friction stir welded AA 6061-T6 aluminium alloy joints”, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, Vol. 20, pp. 1863–18722, 2010

M. Jayaraman, R. Sivasubramanian, V. Balasubramanian, “Establishing relationship between the base metal properties and friction stir welding process parameters of cast aluminum alloys”, Materials and Design, Vol. 31, pp.4567-4576, 2010

W. B. Lee, Y.M. Yeon, S. B. Jung, “Mechanical properties related to microstructural variation of 6061 Al alloy joints by friction stir welding”, Material Tranactions, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 1700-1705, 2004

J. Q. Sua, T. W. Nelson, C. J. Sterling, “Microstructure evolution during FSW/FSP of high strength aluminum alloys”, Mater Sci. Eng., Vol. 405, pp. 277-286, 2005

J. J. Muhsin, H. Moneer, Tolepheh, A. M. Muhammad, “Effect of friction stir welding parameters (rotation and transverse) speed the transient temperature distribution in friction stir welding of AA 7020-T53”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 436-446, 2012

S. Wei, C. Hao, J. Chen, “Study of friction stir welding of 01420 aluminum-lithium alloy”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 453, pp. 170-177, 2007

N. T. Kumbhar, K. Bhanumurthy, “Friction stir welding of Al 6061 alloy”, Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 22, pp. 63-74, 2008

A. R. Ros, K. Manisekar, V. Balasubramainan, “Effect of axial force on microstructure and tensile properties of friction stir welded AZ61A magnesium alloy”, Trans. Nonferrous Met. So. China, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 974-984, 2011

T. V. Christy, N. Murugan, S. Kumar, “A Comparative study on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al 6061 alloy and the MMC Al 6061/TiB2/12P”, J. of Minerals & Materials Charac. and Eng., Vol. 9, No.1, pp. 57-65, 2010

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487