Source- and Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motions
Application of a State-of-the-Art Evaluation Method
Seismic design is the preparation for earthquake ground motions considering the seismicity and seismic amplification properties of the ground at the target site. However, the effects of source, path, and site amplification characteristics are not sufficiently anticipated in seismic codes. Regarding the source and path characteristics, earthquakes that have the strongest influence on the target site should be considered specifically, and, concerning seismic amplification, the effects of not only a shallow subsurface but also a deep subsurface should be considered. This article takes the design spectra of Japanese highway bridges as an object and compares them with the spectra produced by a ground motion prediction equation and the source- and site-specific spectra evaluated using a state-of-the-art method. The results show that the spectra differ greatly. In this way, the necessity of the application of a state-of-the-art technique in the evaluation of source, path, and site amplification characteristics is demonstrated.
AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design (2nd Edition) with 2012, 2014 and 2015 Interim Revisions, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., U.S.A, 2014.
NEHRP recommended provisions for seismic regulations for new buildings and other structures, 2000 edition, FEMA, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings, EN-1998-1, CEN, Brussels, Belgium, 2009.
Specifications for highway bridges, part 5, Seismic design, ver. 2012, Japan Road Association, Tokyo, Japan: Maruzen-Yushodo Co., 2016.
T. Narafu, Y. Ishiyama, R. Ison, J. Sakuma, H. Kato, S. Kita, “Outline and features of Japanese seismic design code,” presented at the 16WCEE 2017, Santiago, Chile, Jan. 9-13, 2017
P. G. Somerville, N. F. Smith, R. W. Graves, and N. A. Abrahamson, “Modification of empirical strong ground motion attenuation relations to include the amplitude and duration effects of rupture directivity,” Seismological Research Letters, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 199-222, 1997.
D. M. Boore and W. B. Joyner, “Site amplifications for generic rock sites,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 327-341, 1997.
Y. Fukushima and T. Nagao, “Variation of Earthquake Ground Motions with Focus on Site Amplification Factors: A Case Study,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 4355–4360, Aug. 2019.
Y. Fukushima, T. Nagao, J. Oshige, and I. Suetomi, “Ground motion evaluation for intra-plate earthquake by different site amplification factors and source models,” in 7th lnternational Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Roma, Italy, Jun. 17-20, 2019, pp. 2484-2492.
T. Nagao, “Seismic amplification by deep subsurface and proposal of a new proxy,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5157-5163, Feb. 2020.
Bases for design of structures–Seismic actions for designing geotechnical works, ISO 23469:2005, 2005.
Y. Hisada, “Broadband strong motion simulation in layered half-space using stochastic Green’s function technique,” Journal of Seismology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 265–279, Apr. 2008, doi: 10.1007/s10950-008-9090-6.
J. X. Zhao et al., “Attenuation Relations of Strong Ground Motion in Japan Using Site Classification Based on Predominant Period,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 898–913, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1785/0120050122.
T. Kanno, A. Narita, N. Morikawa, H. Fujiwara, and Y. Fukushima, “A New Attenuation Relation for Strong Ground Motion in Japan Based on Recorded Data,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 879–897, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1785/0120050138.
S. Kinoshita, “Kyoshin net (K-NET),” Seismological Research Letters, vol. 69, no.4, pp. 309-332, Jul./Aug. 1998, doi: 10.1785/gssrl.69.4.309.
A. Nozu, T. Nagao, and M. Yamada, “A strong motion simulation method suitable for areas with less information on subsurface structure,” presented at 14WCEE, Beijing, China, Oct. 12-17, 2008.
D. M. Boore, “Stochastic simulation of high-frequency ground motions based on seismological models of the radiated spectra,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 73, no. 6A, pp. 1865-1894, Dec. 1983.
J. N. Brune, “Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 75, pp. 4997-5009, Sep. 1970, doi: 10.1029/JB075i026p04997.
J. N. Brune, “Correction to tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 76, 1971, Art no. 5002, doi: 10.1029/JB076i020p05002
K. Irikura, “Prediction of strong acceleration motions using empirical Green’s function,” in Proceedings of the 7th Japan Earthquake Engineerring Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 1986, pp. 151–156.
K. Irikura, T. Kagawa, and H. Sekiguchi, “Revision of the empirical Green's function method by Irikura (1986),” (in Japanese), Programme and abstracts, Seismological Society of Japan, vol. 2, no. B25, Sep. 1997
Cabinet Office, “Nankai Trough Giant Earthquake Model Study Group”, (in Japanese), [Online], http://www.bousai.go.jp/jishin/nankai/
model/index.html (accessed Apr. 18, 2020).
K. Irikura and H. Miyake, “Recipe for Predicting Strong Ground Motion from Crustal Earthquake Scenarios,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 85–104, Jan. 2011, doi: 10.1007/s00024-010-0150-9.
Ports and Harbours Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism(MLIT), National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, MLIT, Port and Airport Research Institute, Technical standards and commentaries for port and harbour facilities in Japan, Tokyo, Japan: The Overseas Coastal Area Developement Institute of Japan, 2009.
T. Satoh, H. Kawase, and T. Sato, “Statistical spectral model of earthquakes in the eastern Tohoku district, Japan, based on the surface and borehole records observed in Sendai,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 446–462, Apr. 1997.
T. Satoh and Y. Tatsumi, “Source, Path, and Site Effects for Crustal and Subduction Earthquakes Inferred from Strong Motion Records in Japan,” Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering (Transactions of AIJ), vol. 67, no. 556, pp. 15–24, 2002, doi: 10.3130/aijs.67.15_2.
K. Kato, “Evaluation of source, path, and site amplification factors from the K-NET strong motion records of the 1997 Kagoshima-ken-hokuseibu earthqltakes,” Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering (Transactions of AIJ), vol. 66, no. 543, pp. 61-68, 2001, doi: 10.3130/aijs.66.61_2
D. J. Andrews, “Objective determination of source parameters and similarity of earthquakes of different size,” in Earthquake Source Mechanics Volume 37, S. Das, J. Boatwright, and C. H. Scholz, Eds, Washington, DC, USA: American Geophysical Union, 1986, pp. 259-268
T. Iwata and K. Irikura, “Source parameters of the 1983 Japan Sea earthquake sequence,” Journal of Physics of the Earth, vol. 36, pp. 155–184, Jan. 1988, doi: 10.4294/jpe1952.36.155.
J. Boatwright, J. B. Fletcher and T. E. Fumal, “A general inversion scheme for source, site and propagation characteristics using multiply recorded sets of moderate-sized earthquakes,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1754-1782, 1991.
A. Nozu, and T. Nagao, “Site Amplification Factors for Strong-Motion Sites in Japan Based on Spectral Inversion Technique and Their Use for Strong-Motion Evaluation,” (in Japanese), Journal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–234, 2007, doi: 10.5610/jaee.7.2_215.
M. Sugito, “Frequency-dependent equivalent strain for earthquake response analysis of soft ground,” Proceedings of the IS-Tokyo, ’95, The First International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Tokyo, 1995
I. Suetomi and N. Yoshida, “Damping characteristics of soil deposits during strong ground motions,” in Proc. Second Int. Symposium on the Effect of Surface Georogy on Seismic Motion, Yokohama, Japan, Dec. 1-3, 1998, pp. 765-772.
S. Yasuda and I. Yamaguchi, “Dynamic soil properties of undistrubed samples,” (in Japanese), Proc.of 20th Annual Conference of JSSMFE, Nagoya, Japan, Jun. 10-12, 1985, pp. 539-542
MetricsAbstract Views: 66
PDF Downloads: 46
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- T. Nagao, D. Shibata, Experimental Study of the Lateral Spreading Pressure Acting on a Pile Foundation During Earthquakes , Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research: Vol. 9 No. 6 (2019): December, 2019
- T. Nagao, Seismic Amplification by Deep Subsurface and Proposal of a New Proxy , Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research: Vol. 10 No. 1 (2020): February, 2020
- Y. Fukushima, T. Nagao, Variation of Earthquake Ground Motions with Focus on Site Amplification Factors: A Case Study , Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research: Vol. 9 No. 4 (2019): August, 2019
- T. Nagao, An Experimental Study on the Way Bottom Widening of Pier Foundations Affects Seismic Resistance , Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research: Vol. 10 No. 3 (2020): June, 2020