Study of the Behavior of Water Droplets Under the Influence of a Uniform Electric Field on Conventional Polyethylene and on Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) with MgO Nanoparticles Samples

C. Charalambous, M. Danikas, Y. Yin, N. Vordos, J. W. Nolan, A. Mitropoulos


It is well known that polyethylene (PE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) are suitable insulating materials for underground cables. Samples of PE and of XLPE with MgO nanoparticles were investigated regarding their flashover behaviour with a uniform electric field and water droplets of various conductivities. In the present paper, the effect of the mounting arrangement of the water drops on the value of the flashover voltage and the effect of the volume of dripping water on the flashover voltage were also studied. Surface damages were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies and the study of the nano-structure of the samples was studied using the SAXS system.


polyethylene; cross-linked polyethylene; flashover; surface discharges; polymer nanocomposites

Full Text:



G. Chen, M. Hao, Z. Xu, A. Vaughan, J. Cao, H. Wang, ‘’Review of high voltage direct current cables’’, CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 9-21, 2015

M. G. Danikas, R. Sarathi, P. Ramnalis, S. L. Nalmpantis, “Analysis of polymer surface modifications due to discharges initiated by water droplets under high electric fields”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 38, pp. 905-910, 2009

M. S. Naidu, V. Kamaraju, High voltage engineering, Eds. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 2000

H. -J. Kloes, D. Koenig, M. G. Danikas, “Electrical surface discharges on wet polymer surfaces”, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium of Gaseous Dielectrics, Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, pp. 489-495, June 1998

K. Karakoulidis, M. G. Danikas, P. Rakitzis, “Deterioration phenomena on insulating surfaces due to water droplets”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 56, pp. 169-175, 2005

M. G. Danikas, P. Rakitzis, K. Karakoulidis, “Study of parameters related to deterioration phenomena due to water droplets on polymeric surfaces”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 130–137, 2006

M. G. Danikas, R. Sarathi, P. Ramnalis, S. L. Nalmpantis, “Analysis of polymer surface modifications due to discharges initiated by water droplets under high electric fields”, Int. J. Electr. Power and Energy Syst. Eng., Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 19-24, 2010

W. T. Starr, “Polymeric outdoor insulation”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 125-136, 1990

A. E. Vlastos, S. M. Gubanski, “Surface structural changes of naturally aged silicone and EPDM composite insulators”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 888-900, 1991

M. G. Danikas, “Polymer outdoor insulators”, Acta Electrotehnica Napocensis, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 3-10, 1999

M. G. Danikas, P. Ramnalis, R. Sarathi, “A study of the behaviour of water droplets on polymeric surfaces under the influence of electric fields in an inclined test arrangement”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 94-99, 2009

S. Feier-Iova, V. Hinrichsen, “Partial Discharge Inception Voltage of Water Drops on Insulating Surfaces Stressed by Electrical Field”, International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, pp. 21-25, 2009

M. Kozako, R. Kido, N. Fuse, Y. Ohki, T. Okamoto, “Difference in surface degradation due to partial discharges between polyamide nanocomposite and microcomposite”, IEEE Annual Report of Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, pp. 398-401, 2004

M. Kozako, R. Kido, T. Imai, T. Ozaki, T. Shimizu, T. Tanaka, “Surface Roughness Change of Epoxy/TiO2 Nanocomposites due to Partial Discharges”, Proceedings of 2005 International Symposium on Electrical insulating Materials, pp. 661–664, Japan, 2005

J. K. Nelson, Dielectric polymer nanocomposites, Eds. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2010

I. Plesa, P. V. Notingher, S. Schloegl, C. Sumereder, M. Muhr, “Properties of polymer composites used in high-voltage applications”, Polymers, Vol. 8, 2016

H. Schnablegger, Y. Singh, The SAXS Guide. Getting acquainted with the principles, Anton Paar GmbH, 2011

M. Jarvid, A. Johansson, R. Kroon, J. M. Bjuggren, H. Wutzel, V. Englund, S. Gubanski, M. R. Andersson, C. Müller, “A New Application Area for Fullerenes: Voltage Stabilizers for Power Cable Insulation,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 897–902, 2015

L. A. Utracki, “Clay-containing polymeric nanocomposites and their properties”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 6-15, 2010

E. David, M. Frechette, “Polymer nanocomposites – Major conclusions and achievements reached so far”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 29-36, 2013

E. A. Cherney, “Nanodielectrics applications–Today and tomorrow”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 59-65, 2013

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487