A New Assessment Parameter to Determine the Efficiency of a Hybrid Vehicle


  • K. R. M. Mahmoud University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • S. M. Ghania University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 12 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 9270-9275 | October 2022 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.5221


This paper presents a new evaluation technique for determining the hybridization efficiency of a vehicle. First, the saving in fuel consumption is estimated in the ideal case considering the vehicle runs through a standard driving cycle and the engine runs at the lowest specific fuel consumption all the time. Subsequently, the hybridization efficiency can be defined as the ratio between the fuel savings in hybrid mode to the ideal savings according to the standard driving cycle. A case study was conducted with a medium-size passenger car according to the new European standard driving cycle. The results showed that the new proposed evaluation criterion is very effective for evaluating hybrid vehicles.


fuel consumption, hybridization efficiency, standard driving cycle


Download data is not yet available.


J. Cao, J. Peng, and H. He, "Modeling and Simulation Research on Power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Energy Procedia, vol. 104, pp. 354–359, Dec. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.12.060

A. Dubray and P. Beguery, "Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Driving Cycles," IFAC Proceedings Volumes, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 1131–1136, Jul. 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-6670(17)39564-2

H. Liu, J. Zhao, T. Qing, X. Li, and Z. Wang, "Energy consumption analysis of a parallel PHEV with different configurations based on a typical driving cycle," Energy Reports, vol. 7, pp. 254–265, Nov. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2020.12.036

M. Mourad and K. Mahmoud, "Investigation into SI engine performance characteristics and emissions fuelled with ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends," Renewable Energy, vol. 143, pp. 762–771, Dec. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.05.064

M. E. Bendib and A. Mekias, "Solar Panel and Wireless Power Transmission System as a Smart Grid for Electric Vehicles," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 5683–5688, Jun. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3473

A. Khadhraoui, T. Selmi, and A. Cherif, "Energy Management of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 8916–8921, Aug. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.5058

S. Changizian, P. Ahmadi, M. Raeesi, and N. Javani, "Performance optimization of hybrid hydrogen fuel cell-electric vehicles in real driving cycles," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 45, no. 60, pp. 35180–35197, Dec. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.01.015

G. Fontaras, P. Pistikopoulos, and Z. Samaras, "Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles," Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 18, pp. 4023–4035, Jun. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.01.053

K. Mahmud, G. E. Town, S. Morsalin, and M. J. Hossain, "Integration of electric vehicles and management in the internet of energy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 4179–4203, Feb. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.11.004

C. Lv, J. Zhang, Y. Li, and Y. Yuan, "Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 92, pp. 469–482, Mar. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.092

S. Zhou, P. Walker, and N. Zhang, "Parametric design and regenerative braking control of a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle," Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 146, Apr. 2020, Art. no. 103714. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2019.103714

L. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Yang, B. Yan, and C. Marina Martinez, "Model predictive control-based efficient energy recovery control strategy for regenerative braking system of hybrid electric bus," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 111, pp. 299–314, Mar. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.12.077

W. Gu, D. Zhao, and B. Mason, "A Review of Intelligent Road Preview Methods for Energy Management of Hybrid Vehicles," IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 654–660, Jan. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2019.09.104

S. Sharma, A. K. Panwar, and M. M. Tripathi, "Storage technologies for electric vehicles," Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 340–361, Jun. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2020.04.004

K. Uddin, M. Dubarry, and M. B. Glick, "The viability of vehicle-to-grid operations from a battery technology and policy perspective," Energy Policy, vol. 113, pp. 342–347, Feb. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.11.015

A. Rabbani and M. Rokni, "Dynamic characteristics of an automotive fuel cell system for transitory load changes," Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 1, pp. 34–43, Mar. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2012.12.003

A. Al-Samari, "Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 721–726, Dec. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2017.04.010

P. Plotz, S. A. Funke, and P. Jochem, "Empirical Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 773–784, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12623

J. Rios-Torres, J. Liu, and A. Khattak, "Fuel consumption for various driving styles in conventional and hybrid electric vehicles: Integrating driving cycle predictions with fuel consumption optimization," International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 123–137, Feb. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2018.1445321

A. Tchetchik, L. I. Zvi, S. Kaplan, and V. Blass, "The joint effects of driving hedonism and trialability on the choice between internal combustion engine, hybrid, and electric vehicles," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 151, Feb. 2020, Art. no. 119815. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119815

F. Salek, M. Zamen, S. V. Hosseini, and M. Babaie, "Novel hybrid system of pulsed HHO generator/TEG waste heat recovery for CO reduction of a gasoline engine," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 45, no. 43, pp. 23576–23586, Sep. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.06.075

D. A. Howey, R. F. Martinez-Botas, B. Cussons, and L. Lytton, "Comparative measurements of the energy consumption of 51 electric, hybrid and internal combustion engine vehicles," Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 459–464, Aug. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2011.04.001

H. Choi and I. Oh, "Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies," Energy Policy, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 2262–2271, May 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.12.014

P. Leiby and J. Rubin, "Understanding the Transition to New Fuels and Vehicles: Lessons Learned from Analysis and Experience of Alternative Fuel and Hybrid Vehicles," in The Hydrogen Energy Transition, D. Sperling and J. S. Cannon, Eds. Burlington, MA, USA: Academic Press, 2004, pp. 191–212. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012656881-3/50014-9

L. Youngjae, K. Gangchul, and P. Youngdug, "The Influence of Operating Conditions on Fuel Economy of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 35–40, 2005.

B. Y. Liaw and M. Dubarry, "From driving cycle analysis to understanding battery performance in real-life electric hybrid vehicle operation," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 174, no. 1, pp. 76–88, Nov. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.010

F. Leach, G. Kalghatgi, R. Stone, and P. Miles, "The scope for improving the efficiency and environmental impact of internal combustion engines," Transportation Engineering, vol. 1, Jun. 2020, Art. no. 100005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.treng.2020.100005

Y. Wang et al., "Fuel consumption and emission performance from light-duty conventional/hybrid-electric vehicles over different cycles and real driving tests," Fuel, vol. 278, Oct. 2020, Art. no. 118340. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118340

Y.-T. Zhang, C. G. Claudel, M.-B. Hu, Y.-H. Yu, and C.-L. Shi, "Develop of a fuel consumption model for hybrid vehicles," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 207, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 112546. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112546

R. Capata and A. Coccia, "Procedure for the Design of a Hybrid-Series Vehicle and the Hybridization Degree Choice," Energies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 450–461, Mar. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en3030450

O. M. Govardhan, "Fundamentals and Classification of Hybrid Electric Vehicles," International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 194–198, 2017.

J. M. Tyrus, R. M. Long, M. Kramskaya, Y. Fertman, and A. Emadi, "Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1607–1622, Sep. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2004.832418

P. Lijewski, M. Kozak, P. Fuc, L. Rymaniak, and A. Ziolkowski, "Exhaust emissions generated under actual operating conditions from a hybrid vehicle and an electric one fitted with a range extender," Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 78, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 102183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2019.11.012

K. Ahn and H. A. Rakha, "A Simple Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Consumption Model for Transportation Applications," in Applied Electromechanical Devices and Machines for Electric Mobility Solutions, London, UK: IntechOpen, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.89055

A. S. Khameesa and M. R. Altaay, "Evaluating the Efficiency of Finance Methods in Residential Complex Projects in Iraq," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8080–8084, Feb. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4663


How to Cite

K. R. M. Mahmoud and S. M. Ghania, “A New Assessment Parameter to Determine the Efficiency of a Hybrid Vehicle”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 9270–9275, Oct. 2022.


Abstract Views: 347
PDF Downloads: 165

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)