Functionally Graded Material Production and Characterization using the Vertical Separator Molding Technique and the Powder Metallurgy Method

Authors

  • I. Kayabasi Motor Vehicles and Transportation Technology Department, Küre Vocational School of Higher Education, Kastamonu University, Turkey
  • G. Sur Mechanical Engineering Department, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey
  • H. Gokkaya Mechanical Engineering Department, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey
  • Y. Sun Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Karabuk University, Turkey
Volume: 12 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 8785-8790 | August 2022 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.5025

Abstract

Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) are advanced customized engineering materials that gradually and continuously change their composition. The current study investigated the production feasibility and some post-production mechanical/physical properties of B4C particle-reinforced (avg. 40µm) AA7075 matrix (avg. 60µm) FGM composites with the vertical separator molding technique using the high-temperature isostatic pressing powder metallurgy method. FGMs produced consist of three (0 – 30 – 60 wt. % B4C) and four (0 – 20 – 40 – 60 wt. % B4C) layers. The powders were mixed in a power blender mixer for 2h and were placed in the mold sections with a vertical separator. The lid was closed, and a pre-pressure of 10Mpa was applied. The FGM green sheet was transferred from the vertical separator mold to the hot work tool steel with a press. In this mold, FGMs were sintered at 560°C for 30 min under a pressure of 325MPa. Microstructural examinations did not reveal any separation or crack formation in the layer transition regions of the FGMs. In addition, a relatively homogeneous B4C reinforcing distribution was observed in the layers with a low reinforcement ratio (wt. 20% and 30%) compared to the other layers. The highest hardness was 170 HBN in one layer of the four-layer FGM containing 40% by weight B4C reinforcement. The highest transverse rupture strength was measured in the test performed from the region with the most reinforcement of the four-layer FGM at 482MPa.

Keywords:

functionally graded material, powder metallurgy, hot pressing, transverse rupture strength

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

F. Erdemir, A. Canakci, and T. Varol, "Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of functionally graded Al2024/SiC composites prepared by powder metallurgy techniques," Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3569–3577, Nov. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(15)63996-6

G. Udupa, S. S. Rao, and K. V. Gangadharan, "Functionally Graded Composite Materials: An Overview," Procedia Materials Science, vol. 5, pp. 1291–1299, Jan. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2014.07.442

R. Watanabe, T. Nishida, and T. Hirai, "Present status of research on design and processing of functionally graded materials," Metals and Materials International, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 513–519, Dec. 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03027249

S. Agca and N. Akar, "Santrifuj Dokum Yontemiyle Uretilen Al-Cu Fonksiyonel Derecelenmis Malzemelerde Uretim Parametrelerinin Malzemenin Sertligi Uzerine Etkisi," Politeknik Dergisi, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 121–127, 2017.

A. S. Alghamdi, M. Ramadan, K. S. A. Halim, and N. Fathy, "Microscopical Characterization of Cast Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys Reinforced with Graphene Nanosheets," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2514–2519, Feb. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1795

Α. Ugur, H. Gokkaya, G. Sur, and N. Eltugral, "Friction Coefficient and Compression Behavior of Particle Reinforced Aluminium Matrix Composites," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3782–3785, Feb. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2507

R. R. Liu, C. Wu, J. Zhang, G. Luo, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, "Microstructure and mechanical behaviors of the ultrafine grained AA7075/B4C composites synthesized via one-step consolidation," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 748, pp. 737–744, Jun. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.03.152

A. Canakci and T. Varol, "Microstructure and properties of AA7075/Al–SiC composites fabricated using powder metallurgy and hot pressing," Powder Technology, vol. 268, pp. 72–79, Dec. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2014.08.016

M. Patel, S. K. Sahu, M. K. Singh, and N. Dalai, "Micro-structural and mechanical characterization of stir cast AA5052/B4C metal matrix composite," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 56, pp. 1129–1136, Jan. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.10.331

H. Jin, S. Li, and Q. Ouyang, "Fabrication of Double-Layer 2024Al-2024Al/B4C Composite by Plasma Activated Sintering and Its Mechanical Properties," Engineering Science, vol. 2, no. 1, Jan. 2017, Art. no. 1.

M. S. Surya and G.Prasanthi, "Manufacturing and Micro structure study of Al-SiC Functionally graded material," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4, no. 2, Part A, pp. 621–627, Jan. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.01.065

A. Pasha, B. M. Rajaprakash, "Functionally graded materials (FGM) fabrication and its potential challenges & applications," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 52, pp. 413–418, Jan. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.09.077

K. H. Min, S. P. Kang, D.-G. Kim, and Y. D. Kim, "Sintering characteristic of Al2O3-reinforced 2xxx series Al composite powders," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 400, no. 1, pp. 150–153, Sep. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2005.03.070

V. C. Nguyen, T. D. Nguyen, and D. H. Tien, "Cutting Parameter Optimization in Finishing Milling of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy under MQL Condition using TOPSIS and ANOVA Analysis," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 6775–6780, Feb. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4015

T. Yıldız and G. Sur, "Investigation of drilling properties of AA7075/Al2O3 functionally graded materials using gray relational analysis," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, vol. 235, no. 9, pp. 1384–1398, Jul. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0954405421995657

P. Kumar Chauhan and S. Khan, "Microstructural examination of aluminium-copper functionally graded material developed by powder metallurgy route," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 25, pp. 833–837, Jan. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.10.007

R. Gunes, M. Aydin, M. Kemal Apalak, and J. N. Reddy, "Experimental and numerical investigations of low velocity impact on functionally graded circular plates," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 59, pp. 21–32, Mar. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.11.022

K. Rajasekhar, V. Suresh Babu, and M. J. Davidson, "Microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-Cu functionally graded materials fabricated by powder metallurgy method," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 41, pp. 1156–1159, Jan. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.09.157

Md. H. Rahman and H. M. M. A. Rashed, "Characterization of Silicon Carbide Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites," Procedia Engineering, vol. 90, pp. 103–109, Jan. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.11.821

M. P. Reddy et al., "Enhanced performance of nano-sized SiC reinforced Al metal matrix nanocomposites synthesized through microwave sintering and hot extrusion techniques," Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 606–614, Oct. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2017.08.015

B. N. Anil Kumar, A. Ahamad, and H. N. Reddappa, "Impact of B4C reinforcement on tensile and hardness properties of Al-B4C metal matrix composites," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 52, pp. 2136–2142, Jan. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.12.454

U. K. Annigeri and G. B. Veeresh Kumar, "Effect of Reinforcement on Density, Hardness and Wear Behavior of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites: A Review," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 5, Part 2, pp. 11233–11237, Jan. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2018.02.002

P. Shantharaj, A. S. Prashanth, M. Nagaral, V. Bharath, V. Auradi, and K. Dharshan, "Microstructure, tensile and compression behaviour of B4C particles reinforced Al7075 matrix composites," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 52, pp. 1135–1139, Jan. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.11.008

W. S. AbuShanab, E. B. Moustafa, E. Ghandourah, and M. A. Taha, "Effect of graphene nanoparticles on the physical and mechanical properties of the Al2024-graphene nanocomposites fabricated by powder metallurgy," Results in Physics, vol. 19, Dec. 2020, Art. no. 103343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2020.103343

W. D. Callister Jr and D. G. Rethwisch, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 9th edition. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2013.

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
I. Kayabasi, G. Sur, H. Gokkaya, and Y. Sun, “Functionally Graded Material Production and Characterization using the Vertical Separator Molding Technique and the Powder Metallurgy Method”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 8785–8790, Aug. 2022.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 379
PDF Downloads: 172

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)