Overview of Green Roof Technology as a Prospective Energy Preservation Technique in Arid Regions

Authors

  • A. S. Mahmoud King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 12 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 8982-8989 | August 2022 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4919

Abstract

Concerns about climate change and rising energy demands have grown as a result of fast population rise and global industrialization. The construction industry has a huge impact on the energy and environmental sectors, accounting for about 40% of global energy consumption and a large portion of overall territorial emissions. There is a need for a shift in mindset when it comes to energy usage, as well as enhanced energy efficiency approaches and radical energy efficiency initiatives. As an energy-saving solution, the green roof, also known as the living roof has suitability and environmental benefits on many levels, while also strengthening aesthetic features and provoking structural innovation. Moreover, drought-prone areas, e.g. Saudi Arabia, have significant household energy demands. The Saudi building sector consumes more than 76% of the country's total electric power generation. As a result, the purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of living roof technology and its potential in Saudi Arabia as an energy-saving strategy. An overview of the building envelope, the impact of cladding design considerations on power usage, the benefits of a living roof, cost-benefit analysis, green policies, and examples from other countries are included in the paper. Other environmental benefits, besides the energy-saving potential of living roofs, were shown to boost the quantitative benefits of the living roof idea. A more detailed study is needed, among other things, to evaluate the energy-saving potential of living roofs based on the weather of various locations.

Keywords:

Sustainability, Energy performance, living roof, Energy saving potentials, Building Insulation

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

J. Goussous, H. Siam, and H. Alzoubi, "Prospects of green roof technology for energy and thermal benefits in buildings: Case of Jordan," Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 14, pp. 425–440, Feb. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2014.05.012

H. Liu et al., "Impacts of green roofs on water, temperature, and air quality: A bibliometric review," Building and Environment, vol. 196, Jun. 2021, Art. no. 107794. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.107794

B. Scharf and F. Kraus, "Green Roofs and Greenpass," Buildings, vol. 9, no. 9, Sep. 2019, Art. no. 205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9090205

J. Jewell, The IEA Model of Short-Term Energy Security (MOSES): Primary Energy Sources and Secondary Fuels. Paris, France: International Energy Agency, 2011.

J. Feria-Toribio and J. Santiago-Ramos, "Ecological functionality of open spaces and physical planning in metropolitan areas: theoretical approaches and recent experiences in the Spanish context," Revista electrónica de geografía y ciencias sociales, vol. 13, no. 299, pp. 1–25, Sep. 2009.

H. S. Khan and M. Asif, "Impact of Green Roof and Orientation on the Energy Performance of Buildings: A Case Study from Saudi Arabia," Sustainability, vol. 9, no. 4, Apr. 2017, Art. no. 640. Sojoudi, R. Madatov, T. Sojoudi, and P. Farhadi, "Achieving Steady and Stable Energy from AlGaAsGaAs Solar Cells," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 151–154, Dec. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.93

I. Jaffal, S.-E. Ouldboukhitine, and R. Belarbi, "A comprehensive study of the impact of green roofs on building energy performance," Renewable Energy, vol. 43, pp. 157–164, Jul. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.12.004

M. Santamouris, "Cooling the cities – A review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments," Solar Energy, vol. 103, pp. 682–703, May 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.07.003

U. D’Souza, "Measuring green roof performance, a solution to sustainable urban development in the UAE," International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 376–388, Jun. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V9-N3-376-388

M. Shafique, R. Kim, and M. Rafiq, "Green roof benefits, opportunities and challenges – A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 90, pp. 757–773, Jul. 2018.

K. Acks, "A Framework for Cost-Benefi t Analysis: Initial Estimates," in Green Roofs in the New York Metropolitan Region: Research Report, C. Rosenzweig, S. Gaffin, and L. Parshall, Eds. Columbia University Center for Climate Systems Research and NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2006.

Buildings and Climate Change: Summary for Decision Makers. Paris, France: United Nations Environment Programme, 2009.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhou, H. Zhuang, and X. Zhu, "Study on the project supervision system based on the principal-agent theory," Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 491–508, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3926/jiem.1328

K. L. McGuire et al., "Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks," PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, 2013, Art. no. e58020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058020

I. F. Grullon – Penkova, J. K. Zimmerman, and G. Gonzalez, "Green roofs in the tropics: design considerations and vegetation dynamics," Heliyon, vol. 6, no. 8, Aug. 2020, Art. no. e04712. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04712

M. Haggag, A. Hassan, and S. Elmasry, "Experimental study on reduced heat gain through green façades in a high heat load climate," Energy and Buildings, vol. 82, pp. 668–674, Oct. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.07.087

M. Shafique, X. Xue, and X. Luo, "An overview of carbon sequestration of green roofs in urban areas," Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 47, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 126515. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126515

A. S. Alharbi, "Assessment of Organizational Digital Transformation in Saudi Arabia," in 6th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development, New Delhi, India, Mar. 2019, pp. 1292–1297.

S. A. Al-Sanea, "Thermal performance of building roof elements," Building and Environment, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 665–675, Jul. 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(01)00077-4

U. D’Souza, "The thermal performance of green roofs in a hot, humid microclimate," WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, vol. 173, pp. 475–486, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP130401

T. Susca, "Green roofs to reduce building energy use? A review on key structural factors of green roofs and their effects on urban climate," Building and Environment, vol. 162, Sep. 2019, Art. no. 106273. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106273

P. La Roche and U. Berardi, "Comfort and energy savings with active green roofs," Energy and Buildings, vol. 82, pp. 492–504, Oct. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.07.055

A. Aflaki et al., "Urban heat island mitigation strategies: A state-of-the-art review on Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and Hong Kong," Cities, vol. 62, pp. 131–145, Feb. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2016.09.003

A. X. Yang and J. Wei, "Green roof," in Handbook of Energy Systems in Green Buildings, New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2018, pp. 1203–1225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49120-1_51

R. Ryckaert, C. Lootens, J. Geldof, and P. Hanselaer, "Criteria for energy efficient lighting in buildings," Energy and Buildings, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 341–347, Mar. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.09.012

L. Halonen, E. Tetri, and P. Bhusal, Eds., Guidebook on Energy Efficient Electric Lighting for Buildings. Espoo, Finland: Aalto University School of Science and Technology, 2010.

H. Zhao and F. Magoules, "A review on the prediction of building energy consumption," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 3586–3592, Aug. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.049

J. A. Veitch and A. D. Galasiu, "The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Windows, Daylight, and View at Home: Review and Research Agenda," National Research Council of Canada. Institute for Research in Construction), Ottawa, Canada, NRC-IRC Research Report RR-325, Feb. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/e554552013-001

Z. Gou, S. S.-Y. Lau, and Z. Zhang, "A comparison of indoor environmental satisfaction between two green buildings and a conventional building in China," Journal of Green Building, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 89–104, Apr. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3992/jgb.7.2.89

T. Brudermann and T. Sangkakool, "Green roofs in temperate climate cities in Europe – An analysis of key decision factors," Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 21, pp. 224–234, Jan. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.12.008

J. Franzaring, L. Steffan, W. Ansel, R. Walker, and A. Fangmeier, "Water retention, wash-out, substrate and surface temperatures of extensive green roof mesocosms—Results from a two year study in SW-Germany," Ecological Engineering, vol. 94, pp. 503–515, Sep. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.021

O. Saadatian et al., "A review of energy aspects of green roofs," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 23, pp. 155–168, Jul. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.02.022

S.-E. Ouldboukhitine, R. Belarbi, and D. J. Sailor, "Experimental and numerical investigation of urban street canyons to evaluate the impact of green roof inside and outside buildings," Applied Energy, vol. 114, pp. 273–282, Feb. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.09.073

B. Dvorak and A. Volder, "Rooftop temperature reduction from unirrigated modular green roofs in south-central Texas," Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 28–35, Jan. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.05.004

E. Alexandri and P. Jones, "Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates," Building and Environment, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 480–493, Apr. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.055

A. Nagase and N. Dunnett, "The relationship between percentage of organic matter in substrate and plant growth in extensive green roofs," Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 230–236, Nov. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.07.012

K. J. H. Williams et al., "Appraising the psychological benefits of green roofs for city residents and workers," Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 44, Aug. 2019, Art. no. 126399. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126399

E. A. Al-Ammar, N. H. Malik, and M. Usman, "Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 84–89, Aug. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.33

B. Kamel, S. Wahba, K. Nassar, and A. Abdelsalam, "Effectiveness of Green-Roof on Reducing Energy Consumption through Simulation Program for a Residential Building: Cairo, Egypt," pp. 1740–1749, Jul. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784412329.175

C. Lutz, U. Lehr, and K. S. Wiebe, "Economic effects of peak oil," Energy Policy, vol. 48, pp. 829–834, Sep. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.017

R. Fioretti, A. Palla, L. G. Lanza, and P. Principi, "Green roof energy and water related performance in the Mediterranean climate," Building and Environment, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1890–1904, Aug. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.03.001

A. Zerroug and E. Dzelzitis, "A Study of Modeling Techniques of Building Energy Consumption," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5191–5194, Feb. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3257

A. Solcerova, F. van de Ven, M. Wang, M. Rijsdijk, and N. van de Giesen, "Do green roofs cool the air?," Building and Environment, vol. 111, pp. 249–255, Jan. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.10.021

H. T. Rakotondramiarana, T. F. Ranaivoarisoa, and D. Morau, "Dynamic Simulation of the Green Roofs Impact on Building Energy Performance, Case Study of Antananarivo, Madagascar," Buildings, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 497–520, Jun. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5020497

F. Bianchini and K. Hewage, "Probabilistic social cost-benefit analysis for green roofs: A lifecycle approach," Building and Environment, vol. 58, pp. 152–162, Dec. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.07.005

T. Au and T. P. Au, Engineering economics for capital investment analysis. Boston, MA, USA: Allyn and Bacon, 1983.

T. Carter and A. Keeler, "Life-cycle cost–benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems," Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 350–363, May 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.024

N. H. Wong and W. L. S. Jan, "Total building performance evaluation of academic institution in Singapore," Building and Environment, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 161–176, Jan. 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(02)00021-5

U. Berardi, "The outdoor microclimate benefits and energy saving resulting from green roofs retrofits," Energy and Buildings, vol. 121, pp. 217–229, Jun. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.03.021

K. Scholz-Barth, "Green Roofs: Stormwater Management From the Top Down," Environmental Design+Construction, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 63–69, Jan. 2001.

M. Shafique, R. Kim, and M. Rafiq, "Green roof benefits, opportunities and challenges – A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 90, pp. 757–773, Jul. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.04.006

E. G. McPherson, "Benefit-based tree valuation," Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48044/jauf.2007.001

E. Oberndorfer et al., "Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services," BioScience, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 823–833, Nov. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1641/B571005

J. Yang, Q. Yu, and P. Gong, "Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago," Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 31, pp. 7266–7273, Oct. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.003

B. A. Currie and B. Bass, "Estimates of air pollution mitigation with green plants and green roofs using the UFORE model," Urban Ecosystems, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 409–422, Dec. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-008-0054-y

N. S. G. Williams, J. Lundholm, and J. Scott MacIvor, "FORUM: Do green roofs help urban biodiversity conservation?," Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1643–1649, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12333

S. Schrader and M. Boning, "Soil formation on green roofs and its contribution to urban biodiversity with emphasis on Collembolans," Pedobiologia, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 347–356, Sep. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedobi.2006.06.003

M. Zinzi and S. Agnoli, "Cool and green roofs. An energy and comfort comparison between passive cooling and mitigation urban heat island techniques for residential buildings in the Mediterranean region," Energy and Buildings, vol. 55, pp. 66–76, Dec. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.09.024

J. B. V. Subrahmanyam, P. Alluvada, Bandana, K. Bhanupriya, and C. Shashidhar, "Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 177–181, Feb. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.104

Q. XiaoSheng, W. XiangYu, C. YeeMeng, and L. YanHong, "A green roof test bed for stormwater management and reduction of urban heat island effect in Singapore.," British Journal of Environment and Climate Change, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 410–420, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/BJECC/2012/2704

A. Pianella, J. Bush, Z. Chen, N. S. G. Williams, and L. Aye, "Green roofs in Australia: review of thermal performance and associated policy development," in 50th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association, Adelaide, Australia, Dec. 2016, pp. 795–804.

A. Belkadi, D. Mezghani, and A. Mami, "Energy Design and Optimization of a Greenhouse: A Heating, Cooling and Lighting Study," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 4235–4242, Jun. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2787

T. Carter and C. R. Jackson, "Vegetated roofs for stormwater management at multiple spatial scales," Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 84–94, Mar. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2006.06.005

M. N. Hamedani and R. E. Smith, "Evaluation of Performance Modelling: Optimizing Simulation Tools to Stages of Architectural Design," Procedia Engineering, vol. 118, pp. 774–780, Jan. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.513

D. Zhu, T. Hong, D. Yan, and C. Wang, "A detailed loads comparison of three building energy modeling programs: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E," Building Simulation, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 323–335, Sep. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-013-0126-7

S. Attia, J. L. M. Hensen, L. Beltran, and A. De Herde, "Selection criteria for building performance simulation tools: contrasting architects’ and engineers’ needs," Journal of Building Performance Simulation, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 155–169, May 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19401493.2010.549573

E. M. Ryan and T. F. Sanquist, "Validation of building energy modeling tools under idealized and realistic conditions," Energy and Buildings, vol. 47, pp. 375–382, Apr. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.12.020

A. S. Mahmoud, M. Asif, M. A. Hassanain, M. O. Babsail, and M. O. Sanni-Anibire, "Energy and Economic Evaluation of Green Roofs for Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climates," Buildings, vol. 7, no. 2, Jun. 2017, Art. no. 30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings7020030

L. Tronchin and K. Fabbri, "Energy performance building evaluation in Mediterranean countries: Comparison between software simulations and operating rating simulation," Energy and Buildings, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1176–1187, Jan. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.10.012

J. Neymark et al., "Applying the building energy simulation test (BESTEST) diagnostic method to verification of space conditioning equipment models used in whole-building energy simulation programs," Energy and Buildings, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 917–931, Oct. 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(02)00072-5

L. Weytjens, S. Attia, G. Verbeeck, and A. De Herde, "The ‘Architect-friendliness’ Of Six Building Performance Simulation Tools: A Comparative Study," International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 237–244, Sep. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5390/SUSB.2011.2.3.237

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
A. S. Mahmoud, “Overview of Green Roof Technology as a Prospective Energy Preservation Technique in Arid Regions”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 8982–8989, Aug. 2022.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 232
PDF Downloads: 124

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share