Analysis of the Physicochemical Characteristics of Distillery Wastewater at Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah
Published online first on November 22, 2021.
The aim of this study is to perceive the level of significant physicochemical characteristics of Distillery Wastewater (DWW) at Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, Pakistan. Five locations in the mill namely spent wash, digester tank, distillery, primary treatment, and secondary treatment were selected for analysis of pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the samples. The samples were taken on a weekly basis for four succeeding months, from January 2021 to April 2021 and the experiments were carried out in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures. The results revealed that the pH of the samples from spent wash was the lowest, whereas secondary treatment samples had the highest. On the contrary, the highest concentrations of TDS, TSS, and COD were found in the samples taken from the spent wash and the lowest from the secondary treatment. The pH values were found abruptly increasing in the digester tank due to the addition of calcium carbonate in the stream of wastewater after the spent wash. The COD concentration was found to rapidly decrease, from more than 106000mg/l in the spent wash to around 35000mg/l in the digester tank samples, and then to gradually decrease up to the final point of disposal. Overall, TDS, TSS, and COD values were higher during April, January, and February and lower during March. The level of pH was extremely low in the spent wash and did not meet the lower limits of standards and the other examined parameters exceeded the upper limits of WHO standards.
Keywords:chemical oxygen demand, distillery wastewater, sugar mill effluents, physiochemical characteristics
A. Q. Jakhrani, S. R. Samo, H. R. Sobuz, A. Uddin, and N. S. Hasan, "Assessment of Dissolved Salts Concentration of Seawater in the Vicinity of Karachi," International Journal of Structural and Civil Engineering, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 61–69, Feb. 2012.
K. Mullen, "Information on Earth’s Water," NGWA. https://www.ngwa.org/what-is-groundwater/About-groundwater/information-on-earths-water (accessed Oct. 16, 2021).
A. N. Laghari, Z. A. Siyal, D. K. Bangwar, M. A. Soomro, G. D. Walasai, and F. A. Shaikh, "Groundwater Quality Analysis for Human Consumption: A Case Study of Sukkur City, Pakistan," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2616–2620, Feb. 2018, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1768.
A. A. Mahessar, A. L. Qureshi, A. N. Laghari, S. Qureshi, S. F. Shah, and F. A. Shaikh, "Impact of Hairdin, Miro Khan and Shahdad Kot Drainage on Hamal Dhand, Sindh," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 3652–3656, Dec. 2018, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2389.
A. N. Laghari, Z. A. Siyal, M. A. Soomro, D. K. Bangwar, A. J. Khokhar, and H. L. Soni, "Quality Analysis of Urea Plant Wastewater and its Impact on Surface Water Bodies," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 2699–2703, Apr. 2018, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1767.
J.-M. Faurès, J. Hoogeveen, and J. Bruinsma, "The FAO irrigated area forecast for 2030." FAO, 2002.
D. Pimentel et al., "Water Resources: Agricultural and Environmental Issues," BioScience, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 909–918, Oct. 2004, https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0909:WRAAEI]2.0.CO;2.
P. Chowdhary, R. N. Bharagava, S. Mishra, and N. Khan, "Role of Industries in Water Scarcity and Its Adverse Effects on Environment and Human Health," in Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development: Volume 1: Air, Water and Energy Resources, V. Shukla and N. Kumar, Eds. Singapore: Springer, 2020, pp. 235–256.
P. K. Poddar and O. Sahu, "Quality and management of wastewater in sugar industry," Applied Water Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 461–468, Mar. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-015-0264-4.
T. Nandy, S. Shastry, and S. N. Kaul, "Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery," Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 25–38, May 2002, https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.2001.0505.
A. Ingaramo, H. Heluane, M. Colombo, and M. Cesca, "Water and wastewater eco-efficiency indicators for the sugar cane industry," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 487–495, Mar. 2009, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.08.018.
O. P. Sahu and P. K. Chaudhari, "Electrochemical treatment of sugar industry wastewater: COD and color removal," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 739, pp. 122–129, Feb. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2014.11.037.
K. Sriroth, W. Vanichsriratana, and J. Sunthornvarabhas, "The Current Status of Sugar Industry and By-products in Thailand," Sugar Tech, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 576–582, Dec. 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-016-0491-5.
L. A. Martinelli et al., "Water Use in Sugar and Ethanol Industry in the State of São Paulo (Southeast Brazil)," vol. 2013, Jun. 2013, https://doi.org/10.4236/jsbs.2013.32019.
A. M. de Lima and R. R. de Souza, "Use of Sugar Cane Vinasse as Substrate for Biosurfactant Production Using Bacillus subtilis PC," Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 37, pp. 673–678, Jan. 2014, https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1437113.
P. K. Singh, M. Tripathi, R. P. Singh, and P. Singh, "Treatment and Recycling of Wastewater from Sugar Mill," in Advances in Biological Treatment of Industrial Waste Water and their Recycling for a Sustainable Future, R. L. Singh and R. P. Singh, Eds. Singapore: Springer, 2019, pp. 199–223.
S. Krishnamoorthy, M. Premalatha, and M. Vijayasekaran, "Characterization of distillery wastewater – An approach to retrofit existing effluent treatment plant operation with phycoremediation," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 148, pp. 735–750, Apr. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.045.
J. Fito, N. Tefera, H. Kloos, and S. W. H. Van Hulle, "Physicochemical Properties of the Sugar Industry and Ethanol Distillery Wastewater and Their Impact on the Environment," Sugar Tech, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 265–277, Apr. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-018-0633-z.
R. Chowdhary, A. Yadav, G. Kaithwas, and R. N. Bharagava, "Distillery Wastewater: A Major Source of Environmental Pollution and Its Biological Treatment for Environmental Safety," in Green Technologies and Environmental Sustainability, R. Singh and S. Kumar, Eds. Singapore: Springer International Publishing, 2017.
P. Chowdhary, A. Raj, and R. N. Bharagava, "Environmental pollution and health hazards from distillery wastewater and treatment approaches to combat the environmental threats: A review," Chemosphere, vol. 194, pp. 229–246, Mar. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.163.
A. C. Wilkie, K. J. Riedesel, and J. M. Owens, "Stillage characterization and anaerobic treatment of ethanol stillage from conventional and cellulosic feedstocks," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 63–102, Aug. 2000, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00017-9.
A. K. Prajapati and P. K. Chaudhari, "Physicochemical Treatment of Distillery Wastewater—A Review," Chemical Engineering Communications, vol. 202, no. 8, pp. 1098–1117, Aug. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2014.1002560.
A. K. Biswas, M. Mohanty, K. M. Hati, and A. K. Misra, "Distillery effluents effect on soil organic carbon and aggregate stability of a Vertisol in India," Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 241–246, Jul. 2009, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2009.02.012.
F. Ansari, "Environmental Impact of Distillery Effluent on Vertical Soil Horizon due to Leaching Effect: An Experimental Approach," International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 223–231, Aug. 2014.
D. Pant and A. Adholeya, "Biological approaches for treatment of distillery wastewater: A review," Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 2321–2334, Sep. 2007, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.09.027.
P. A. Shivajirao, "Treatment of distillery wastewater using membrane technologies," International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 275–283, 2012.
"Company History," Habib Sugar Mills Ltd. http://www.habibsugar.com/company-history (accessed Oct. 16, 2021).
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 164
PDF Downloads: 90
Copyright (c) 2021 A. Q. Jakhrani; N. H. Jakhrani, K. C. Mukwana, M. A. Bhutto, D. M. Mangi, M. Hafeez
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.