A New Optimization Approach for a Solar Tracker Based on an Inertial Measurement Unit


  • M. R. Rezoug Department of Electrical Engineering, University Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Algeria
  • M. Benaouadj Department of Electrical Engineering, University Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Algeria
  • D. Taibi Department of Electrical Engineering, University Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Algeria
  • R. Chenni MoDERNa Laboratory, University of Constantine 1, Algeria
Volume: 11 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 7542-7550 | October 2021 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4330


Improvements and applications of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors have increased in several areas. They are generally used in equipment that measures orientation, gravitational force, and speed. Therefore, in this paper, we worked on improving the performance of IMU in an application on solar trackers of the Kalman filter. This work illustrates the design of an autonomous device with astronomical control of a photovoltaic (PV) panel, allowing the optimization of the orientation/energy gain ratio. The device is based on two concepts at the same time, the modeling of the solar trajectory adopted by an algorithm which calculates continuously the solar angles (elevation and azimuth) and the approval of these by the IMU in order to sweep away any climatic fluctuations and thus allow an almost perfect adjustment relative to the perpendicular axis of the rays. The tracking system is based on two joints controlled by an Arduino control board. Experiments have shown a better performance of the two-axis device: the net energy gains can be around 34% with an additional 1.1% when the Kalman filter is applied.


astronomical control, orientation, energy gain, optimization, inertial measurement unit


Download data is not yet available.


S. Abdallah and S. Nijmeh, "Two axes sun tracking system with PLC control," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1931–1939, Jul. 2004.

A. A. Rizvi, K. Addoweesh, A. El-Leathy, and H. Al-Ansary, "Sun position algorithm for sun tracking applications," in IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA, Oct. 2014, pp. 5595–5598.

B. Krishna and K. Sinha, "Tracking of Sun for Solar Panels and Real Time Monitoring Using LabVIEW," Journal of Automation and Control Engineering, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 312–315, 2013.

T.-C. Cheng, W.-C. Hung, and T.-H. Fang, "Two-Axis Solar Heat Collection Tracker System for Solar Thermal Applications," International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2013, Nov. 2013, Art. no. e803457.

K.-K. Chong et al., "Integration of an On-Axis General Sun-Tracking Formula in the Algorithm of an Open-Loop Sun-Tracking System," Sensors, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 7849–7865, Oct. 2009.

S. M. Çinar, F. O. Hocaoğlu, and M. Orhun, "A remotely accessible solar tracker system design," Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 6, no. 3, May 2014, Art. no. 033143.

D. Ciobanu and C. Jaliu, "Step tracking program for concentrator solar collectors," IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 147, Aug. 2016, Art. no. 012149.

R. Eke and A. Senturk, "Performance comparison of a double-axis sun tracking versus fixed PV system," Solar Energy, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 2665–2672, Sep. 2012.

M. Engin and D. Engin, "Optimization Controller for Mechatronic Sun Tracking System to Improve Performance," Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 5, Jan. 2013, Art. no. 146352.

H. Eric Tseng, L. Xu, and D. Hrovat, "Estimation of land vehicle roll and pitch angles," Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 433–443, May 2007.

F. M. Hoffmann, R. F. Molz, J. V. Kothe, E. O. B. Nara, and L. P. C. Tedesco, "Monthly profile analysis based on a two-axis solar tracker proposal for photovoltaic panels," Renewable Energy, vol. 115, pp. 750–759, Jan. 2018.

R. Velicu and M. Lates, "Torques on Rotational Axes of PV Azimuthal Sun Tracking Systems," in Sustainable Energy in the Built Environment - Steps Towards nZEB, Cham, 2014, pp. 461–470.

Y. Rambhowan and V. Oree, "Improving the dual-axis solar tracking system efficiency via drive power consumption optimization," Applied Solar Energy, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Apr. 2014.

M. R. Rezoug and R. Chenni, "A Real-Time Optimization Approach to the Efficiency of a Photovoltaic System by a Hybrid Tracking Technique using LabVIEW," American Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 267–277, May 2018.

Y. Rizal, S. H. Wibowo, and Feriyadi, "Application of Solar Position Algorithm for Sun-Tracking System," Energy Procedia, vol. 32, pp. 160–165, Jan. 2013.

M. J. Ya’u, "A Review on Solar Tracking Systems and Their Classifications," Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 46–50, Aug. 2017.

S. Yilmaz, H. Riza Ozcalik, O. Dogmus, F. Dincer, O. Akgol, and M. Karaaslan, "Design of two axes sun tracking controller with analytically solar radiation calculations," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 43, pp. 997–1005, Mar. 2015.

S. Seme, G. Štumberger, and J. Voršič, "Maximum Efficiency Trajectories of a Two-Axis Sun Tracking System Determined Considering Tracking System Consumption," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1280–1290, Apr. 2011.

B. Sun, Y. Wang, and J. Banda, "Gait Characteristic Analysis and Identification Based on the iPhone’s Accelerometer and Gyrometer," Sensors, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 17037–17054, Sep. 2014.

C.-C. Wei, Y.-C. Song, C.-C. Chang, and C.-B. Lin, "Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor," Sensors, vol. 16, no. 12, Dec. 2016, Art. no. 1995.


How to Cite

M. R. Rezoug, M. Benaouadj, D. Taibi, and R. Chenni, “A New Optimization Approach for a Solar Tracker Based on an Inertial Measurement Unit”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 7542–7550, Oct. 2021.


Abstract Views: 153
PDF Downloads: 71

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share