Cetane Number Improvement of Distilled Diesel from Tawke Wells


  • S. M. N. K. Majeed Zakho Technical Institute, Duhok Polytechnic University, Iraq
  • S. A. Idrees Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Iraq
  • V. A. Musa Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zakho, Iraq
  • S. M. Simo Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Zakho, Iraq
  • A. A. Mohammed Department of Chemistry, University of Zakho, Iraq
  • L. A. AbdulKareem Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Zakho, Iraq


The current research aims to improve the cetane number of diesel extracted from the crude oil of Tawke region-Iraq Kurdistan. A specific mixture of chemical compounds was prepared which included m-nitrophenol, 4-nitro toluene, and nitrobenzene. The components' effects were investigated with regard to the cetane number, flash point, viscosity, and refractive index of diesel. The quantity of each compound mixed with diesel was prepared based on the statistical analysis of the experiment device (Box–Behnken Designs-BBDs). The tested mixture showed a good agreement and improvement of cetane and flash point and a very low effect on viscosity and refractive index. According to the statistical analysis, the main influence on cetane number and the flashpoint was from m-nitrophenol. The investigation showed that the best results were acquired from the samples of 25PPM 4-nitro toluene and 50PPM m-nitrophenol with a cetane number of 65.3. The correlation and the interaction of the regression equation were linear with all cases. It is worth mentioning that all additives positively influenced the cetane number in the regression equation. The sulfur content was measured as well, and the obtained weight percentage of sulfur was 0.8404%.


diesel improvers, cetane number, flash point, viscosity


Download data is not yet available.


P. E. Oguntunde, O. O. Ojo, O. A. Oguntunde, and H. I. Okagbue, "Crude Oil Importation and Exportation in Nigeria: An Exploratory and Comparative Study," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 3329–3331, Oct. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2172

M. M. Khudhair, S. A. Husain, S. M. Salih, and Z. M. Jassim, "Preparation of Cetane Improver for Diesel Fuel and Study It’s Performance," Journal of Al-Nahrain University-Science, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 42–50, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22401/JNUS.20.1.06

M. Semakula and F. Inambao, "Cetane Improvers and Ethanol Performance and Emissions Characteristics Using Pyrorated Biodiesel," Jun. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints201806.0106.v1

E. G. Giakoumis and C. K. Sarakatsanis, "A comparative assessment of biodiesel cetane number predictive correlations based on fatty acid composition," Energies, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1–30, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030422

A. S. Hamadi, "Selective Additives for Improvement of Gasoline Octane Number," Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 22–35, 2010.

A. Oseev, M. Zubtsov, and R. Lucklum, "Octane number determination of gasoline with a phononic crystal sensor," Procedia Engineering, vol. 47, pp. 1382–1385, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.09.414

R. Stradling, J. Williams, H. Hamje, and D. Rickeard, "Effect of Octane on Performance, Energy Consumption and Emissions of Two Euro 4 Passenger Cars," Transportation Research Procedia, vol. 14, pp. 3159–3168, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.256

A. Álvarez, M. Lapuerta, and J. R. Agudelo, "Prediction of Flash-Point Temperature of Alcohol/Biodiesel/Diesel Fuel Blends," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 58, no. 16, pp. 6860–6869, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.9b00843

M. M. Alrefaai, G. D. J. Guerrero Peña, A. Raj, S. Stephen, T. Anjana, and A. Dindi, "Impact of dicyclopentadiene addition to diesel on cetane number, sooting propensity, and soot characteristics," Fuel, vol. 216, pp. 110–120, Mar. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.11.145

S. Naman, M. Ali, and S. Simo, "Evaluation and Improvement of Diesel Cut from Tawke Crude Oil Wells, Zakho," Science Journal of University of Zakho , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25271/2017.5.1.308

S. A. Idrees and M. Khalil Ibrahim, "Optimization of Congo-Red Photo-Catalytic Degradation by Central Composite Design," in 2018 International Conference on Advanced Science and Engineering (ICOASE), Duhok, Iraq, Oct. 2018, pp. 389–393. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICOASE.2018.8548919

S. L. C. Ferreira et al., "Statistical designs and response surface techniques for the optimization of chromatographic systems," Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1158, no. 1, pp. 2–14, Jul. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.03.051

I. M. Kareem, L. A. Abdulkareem, and H. I. Al-Barudi, "Surface and Deep Soil 222Rn Gas Exhalation Comparison: A Case Study in Tawke, Duhok, Northern Iraq," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4741–4744, Oct. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3086

M. Vaez, A. Zarringhalam Moghaddam, and S. Alijani, "Optimization and Modeling of Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dye Using a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Based on the Central Composite Design with Immobilized Titania Nanoparticles," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 4199–4207, Mar. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ie202809w

V.-M. T. Taavitsainen, "Experimental Optimization and Response Surfaces," in Chemometrics in Practical Applications, London, UK: IntechOpen, 2012.

P. Calza et al., "Multivariate experimental design for the photocatalytic degradation of imipramine. Determination of the reaction pathway and identification of intermediate products," Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 84, no. 3–4, pp. 379–388, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.04.015

F. Lujaji, A. Bereczky, L. Janosi, C. Novak, and M. Mbarawa, "Cetane number and thermal properties of vegetable oil, biodiesel, 1-butanol and diesel blends," Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 1175–1181, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-010-0733-9

M. Marchionna, R. Patrini, D. Sanfilippo, A. Paggini, F. Giavazzi, and L. Pellegrini, "From natural gas to oxygenates for cleaner diesel fuels," in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 136, Paris, France: Elsevier, 2001, pp. 489–494. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2991(01)80351-7


How to Cite

S. M. N. K. Majeed, S. A. Idrees, V. A. Musa, S. M. Simo, A. A. Mohammed, and L. A. AbdulKareem, “Cetane Number Improvement of Distilled Diesel from Tawke Wells”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 7195–7200, Jun. 2021.


Abstract Views: 397
PDF Downloads: 241

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)