Investigating the Quality of Milk using Spectrometry Technique and Scattering Theory

Authors

  • Ν. Α. Ι. Μ. Kamil Advanced Devices and System (ADS), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Z. S. Nor’aini Advanced Devices and System (ADS), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
  • W. Z. Wan Ismail Advanced Devices and System (ADS), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
  • S. R. Balakrishnan Advanced Devices and System (ADS), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
  • J. Jamaludin Advanced Devices and System (ADS), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
  • I. Ismail Advanced Devices and System (ADS), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
  • M. Sahrim Advanced Devices and System (ADS), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract

Milk is a dairy product that contains dissolved proteins, carbohydrates, fat, and many minerals. Milk enhances body growth and provides vital energy and fatty acids. Milk can turn bad after being kept at room temperature for several days. The endurance of milk could depend on its fat and protein composition. Our work aims to compare the quality of milk after being kept at room temperature for several days using spectroscopy methods. Modeling based on scattering theory is also provided to compare the light propagation in milk, water, and air. A VIS-NIR spectrometer was used to observe the light absorption, transmission, and reflectance whereas a modeling approach was applied to study the scattering, absorption, and extinction efficiencies. The milk samples consist of full cream milk kept at room temperature for 8 days, 11 days, 14 days, and 17 days. The results show that milk without fermentation has higher light absorbance and lower transmission compared to milk with fermentation, due to changes in milk composition after the fermentation process. Milk scatters more light compared to water and air due to its fat globule and protein ingredients. The output of this study can be used as a reference for studies involving bacteria or microorganisms in milk. It also can be used to compare the quality of milk with and without air exposure.

Keywords:

light propagation, absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, scattering, milk, spectroscopy

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

G. H. Schmidt, L. D. V. Vleck, and M. F. Hutjens, Principles of Dairy Science, Subsequent edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, 1988.

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, L. Ott, and R. Steiner, "Determination of the scattering coefficient and the anisotropy factor from laser Doppler spectra of liquids including blood," Applied Optics, vol. 35, no. 19, pp. 3404–3412, Jul. 1996. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.35.003404

A. A. Ramanenka, A. A. Lizunova, A. K. Mazharenko, M. F. Kerechanina, V. V. Ivanov, and S. V. Gaponenko, "Preparation and Optical Properties of Isopropanol Suspensions of Aluminum Nanoparticles," Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 662–667, Sep. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10812-020-01051-w

M. A. Ansari, M. Erfanzadeh, and E. Mohajerani, "Mechanisms of Laser-Tissue Interaction: II. Tissue Thermal Properties," Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 99–106, 2013.

T. Katsumata, H. Aizawa, S. Komuro, S. Ito, and T. Matsumoto, "Quantitative analysis of fat and protein concentrations of milk based on fibre-optic evaluation of back scattering intensity," International Dairy Journal, vol. 109, Oct. 2020, Art. no. 104743. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2020.104743

M. Montemurro, A. Schwaighofer, A. Schmidt, M. J. Culzoni, H. K. Mayer, and B. Lendl, "High-throughput quantitation of bovine milk proteins and discrimination of commercial milk types by external cavity-quantum cascade laser spectroscopy and chemometrics," Analyst, vol. 144, no. 18, pp. 5571–5579, Sep. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9AN00746F

E. Ransmark, B. Svensson, I. Svedberg, A. Göransson, and T. Skoglund, "Measurement of homogenisation efficiency of milk by laser diffraction and centrifugation," International Dairy Journal, vol. 96, pp. 93–97, Sep. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.04.011

A. Aljaafreh and H. Steiner, "Evaluation of Using NIR Simplified Spectroscopy in Yogurt Fermentation Automation," presented at the 8th International Conference on Researches in Engineering, Technology and Sciences, Istanbul,Turkey, Aug. 2015.

M. B. Alshammari, E. H. Anouar, and G. A. El-Hiti, "Spectroscopic Characterization, Hirshfeld Surface, DFT, and TD-DFT of tert-Butyl Phenethylcarbamate and 1,1-Dimethyl-3-Phenethylurea," Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 736–744, Sep. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10812-020-01063-6

F. Alorifi, S. M. A. Ghaly, M. Y. Shalaby, M. A. Ali, and M. O. Khan, "Analysis and Detection of a Target Gas System Based on TDLAS & LabVIEW," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 4196–4199, Jun. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2736

M. M. Nadareishvili, G. Mamniashvili, D. Jishiashvili, G. Abramishvili, C. Ramana, and J. Ramsden, "Investigation of the Visible Light-Sensitive ZnO Photocatalytic Thin Films," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 5524–5527, Apr. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3392

N. A. Bakar, Huize Cui, A. Abu-Siada, and Shengtao Li, "A review of spectroscopy technology applications in transformer condition monitoring," in 2016 International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis (CMD), Xi’an, China, Sep. 2016, pp. 372–375. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CMD.2016.7757895

R. A. Viscarra Rossel, D. J. J. Walvoort, A. B. McBratney, L. J. Janik, and J. O. Skjemstad, "Visible, near infrared, mid infrared or combined diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for simultaneous assessment of various soil properties," Geoderma, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 59–75, Mar. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.03.007

N. A. I. Muhamad Kamil et al., "Investigating Light Propagation in Full and Skimmed Milk based on Spectroscopy and Monte Carlo Analysis," Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 2265–2278, Dec. 2020.

C. Matzler, "MATLAB functions for Mie scattering and absorption," Institut für Angewandte Physik, Bern, Switzerland, Research Report 2002–08, Jun. 2002.

K. L. van der Molen, "Experiments on scattering lasers: from Mie to random," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands, 2007.

W. E. Meador and W. R. Weaver, "Two-Stream Approximations to Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres: A Unified Description of Existing Methods and a New Improvement," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 37, pp. 630–643, Mar. 1980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<0630:TSATRT>2.0.CO;2

Y. Ren, H. Qi, X. Yu, and L. Ruan, "A forward-angle-scattering method for the determination of optical constants and particle size distribution by collimated laser irradiation," Optics Communications, vol. 389, pp. 258–264, Apr. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2016.12.060

D. J. Dahm, "Explaining Some Light Scattering Properties of Milk Using Representative Layer Theory," Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 323–339, Oct. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1255/jnirs.1071

L. C. Andrews, Field Guide to Atmospheric Optics, Second Edition, 2nd ed. Washington, DC, USA: SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2019.

C. Hahn, M. Sramek, S. Nöbel, and J. Hinrichs, "Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence of temperature and holding time on the formation of particle clusters," Dairy Science & Technology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 91–107, Jan. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-011-0046-1

S. L. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, and S. T. Flock, "Microscopic correlates of macroscopic optical property changes during thermal coagulation of myocardium," in Laser-Tissue Interaction, Jun. 1990, vol. 1202, pp. 2–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.17605

M. Lu et al., "Milk Spoilage: Methods and Practices of Detecting Milk Quality," Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 113–123, Jul. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.47A014

R. Fernandes, Ed., Microbiology Handbook: Dairy Products, 3rd ed. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/9781847559432

B. Aernouts, E. Polshin, J. Lammertyn, and W. Saeys, "Visible and near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of raw milk for cow health monitoring: Reflectance or transmittance?," Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 94, no. 11, pp. 5315–5329, Nov. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4354

J. A. Raty and K.-E. Peiponen, "Reflectance Study of Milk in the UV-Visible Range," Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1123–1127, Sep. 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1366/0003702991947919

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
Kamil Ν. Α. Ι. Μ., “Investigating the Quality of Milk using Spectrometry Technique and Scattering Theory”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 7111–7117, Jun. 2021.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 135
PDF Downloads: 86

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share