Performance Investigation of Different Topologies of 1-100 GHz on-chip Transformers using 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS

S. Gomha, K. Langat

Abstract


In this study, modeling and designing different topologies of on-chip transformers are presented using 130nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. Interleaved, stacked, and full symmetrical interleaved transformers are investigated. Octagon and square shapes are used for designing transformers with flipped and non-flipped feed lines. A comparison between performances of various configurations is presented using a full-wave simulator. The octagon stacked transformer with flipped feed lines showed a good performance at around 60GHz. The simulated results demonstrated a coupling factor K of 0.94, minimum insertion loss of 1.01518dB, and Q-factor of 9 with a minimum occupied area of 0.0019mm2.


Keywords


on-chip transformer; 130nm SiGe BiCMOS technology; interleaved transformer; stacked transformer

Full Text:

PDF

References


S. Bertoldo, C. Lucianaz, M. Allegretti, “On the use of a 77 GHz automotive radar as a microwave rain gauge”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 2356–2360, 2018

Z. A. Shamsan, M. Alammar, A. Alharthy, A. Aldahmash, K. A. A. Snaie, A. M. A. Hetar, “Micrometer and millimeter wave P-to-P links under dust storm effects in arid climates”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 4520–4524, 2019

B. Curran, C. Tschoban, I. Ndip, K. D. Lang, H. Kroener, A. Ippich, “Dielectric material characterization of high frequency printed circuit board laminates and an analysis of their transmission line high frequency losses”, 46th European Microwave Conference, London, UK, October 4-6, 2016

T. Tanigawa, E. Mizushima, M. Shimada, K. Morita, M. Kakitani, S. Takanezawa, “Low transmission loss film material for high-speed high-frequency devices”, 68th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, San Diego, USA, May 29-June 1, 2018

B. Chen, L. Shen, J. Gao, “A 60 GHz transformer-coupled neutralized low power CMOS power amplifier”, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 57, No. 11, pp. 2487–2491, 2015

H. S. Son, J. Y. Jang, D. M. Kang, H. J. Lee, C. S. Park, “A 109 GHz CMOS power amplifier with 15.2 dBm psat and 20.3 dB gain in 65-nm CMOS technology”, Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 26, No. 7, pp. 510–512, 2016

M. Vigilante, P. Reynaert, “On the design of wideband transformer-based fourth order matching networks for {E} -band receivers in 28-nm CMOS”, Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 52, No. 8, pp. 2071–2082, 2017

T. Kihara, S. Matsuda, T. Yoshimura, “Analysis and design of differential LNAs with on-chip transformers in 65-nm CMOS technology”, 14th IEEE International New Circuits and Systems Conference, Vancouver, Canada, June 26-29, 2016

C. Y. Huang, J. Y. C. Liu, “62–92 GHz low-noise transformer-coupled LNA in 90-nm CMOS”, Electronics Letters, Vol. 54, No. 10, pp. 634–636, 2018

D. Hou, W. Hong, J. Chen, P. Yan, Y. Xiong, “A compact D-band I/Q mixer with improved transformer balun”, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 59, No. 11, pp. 2840–2844, 2017

E. C. Wagner, G. M. Rebeiz, “A 9.4–11.7 GHz VCO in 0.12 µm SiGe BiCMOS with −123 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 MHz offset for 5G systems”, IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Philadelphia, USA, June 10-12, 2018

S. Ambulker, S. Nakhate, “Wide tuning range low phase noise VCO for V-band application”, IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 756–764, 2018

H. Wang, J. Chen, J. T. S. Do, H. Rashtian, X. Liu, “High-efficiency millimeter-wave single-ended and differential fundamental oscillators in CMOS”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 53, No. 8, pp. 2151–2163, 2018

B. Chen, L. Shen, J. Gao, “A 60 GHz transformer-coupled neutralized low power CMOS power amplifier,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 57, No. 11, pp. 2487–2491, 2015

O. E. Gharniti, E. Kerherve, J. B. Begueret, “Modeling and characterization of on-chip transformers for silicon RFIC”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 607–615, 2007

B. Leite, E. Kerherve, J. B. Begueret, D. Belot, “An analytical broadband model for millimeter-wave transformers in silicon technologies”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 582–589, 2012

K. Kang, L. Nan, S. C. Rustagi, K. Mouthaan, J. Shi, R. Kumar, W. Y. Yin, L. W. Li, “A wideband scalable and spice-compatible model for on-chip interconnects up to 110 GHz”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 942–951, 2008

Z. Gao, K. Kang, C. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Ban, L. Sun, W. Hong, Q. Xue, “A broadband and equivalent-circuit model for millimeter-wave on-chip M:N six-port transformers and baluns”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 63, No. 10, pp. 3109–3121, 2015

T. H. Lee, The design of CMOS radio-frequency integrated circuits, Cambridge University Press, 2004

R. L. Bunch, D. I. Sanderson, S. Raman, “Quality factor and inductance in differential IC implementations”, IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 82–92, 2002

H. C. Luong, J. Yin, Transformer-based design techniques for oscillators and frequency dividers, Springer, 2016

Y. K. Koutsoyannopoulos, Y. Papananos, “Systematic analysis and modeling of integrated inductors and transformers in RF IC design”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 47, No. 8, pp. 699–713, 2000

V. N. R. Vanukuru, “Highly efficient and symmetric stacked transformers for millimeter-wave ICS”, International Conference on Microelectronic Devices, Circuits and Systems, Vellore, India, August 10-12, 2017

K. T. Ng, B. Rejaei, J. N. Burghartz, “Substrate effects in monolithic RF transformers on silicon”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 377–383, 2002

B. Leite, Design and modeling of mm-wave integrated transformers in CMOS and BiCMOS technologies, PhD Thesis, Universite Sciences Technologies-Bordeaux I, 2011




eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487