Performance Evaluation of a MIMO based Underwater Communication System under Fading Conditions

B. Pranitha, L. Anjaneyulu


Due to the intense importance of underwater applications in military and commercial purposes, Underwater Acoustic Communication (UWAC) is an attracting research area. Very high propagation delay, path loss, and low bandwidth are the factors that challenged the acoustic waves in an underwater environment. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) techniques are currently considered in UWAC to surpass the bandwidth limitation of the undersea channel. In this paper, the accomplishment of a MIMO in UWAC System highlighting both Line of Sight (LOS), i.e. the Rician fading and Non-Line of Sight (NLOS), i.e. the Rayleigh fading signal propagation, is assessed. Spatial Modulation technique is used, which helps in increasing the data rate in UWAC. It controls the spatial distribution of the energy caused by a signal in such a way that the single ocean channel sustains multiple parallel communication channels. The utilization of Zero Forcing (ZF) equalizer, which estimates the transmitted data proves the success of removing inter symbol interference (ISI). Matlab simulations are done for the UWAC system for values of LOS/NLOS. Because of various scattering effects in NLOS propagation, the error rate is considerably high when compared to that of the LOS propagation. Bit Error Rate (BER) values for the corresponding signal to noise ratio (SNR) are calculated.


Underwater Acoustic Communications (UWAC); Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO); Rayleigh fading; Non-Line of Sight (N-LOS); Rician fading; Line of Sight (LOS)

Full Text:



G. Qiao, S. Liu, Z. Sun, F. Zhou, “Full-duplex, multi-user and parameter reconfigurable underwater acoustic communication modem”, Oceans-San Diego, San Diego, USA, September 23-26, 2013

Y. Emami, R. Javidan, “An energy-efficient data transmission scheme in underwater wireless sensor networks”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 931-936, 2016

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, H. Chizari, “A reliable energy-efficient pressure-based routing protocol for the underwater wireless sensor network”, Wireless Networks, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 2061-2075, 2018

O. Kaiwartya, A. H. Abdullah, Y. Cao, J. Lloret, S. Kumar, R. R. Shah, M. Prasad, S. Prakash, “Virtualization in wireless sensor networks: Fault tolerant embedding for the internet of things”, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 571-580, 2018

M. A. B. Yusof, S. Kabir, “An overview of sonar and electromagnetic waves for underwater communication”, IETE Technical Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 307-317, 2012

D. Wen, W. Cai, Y. Pan, “Design of underwater optical communication system”, OCEANS 2016-Shanghai, Shanghai, China, April 10-13, 2016

A. Ranjan, A. Ranjan, “Underwater wireless communication network”, Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 41-46, 2013

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, H. Chizari, “Next forwarding node selection in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs): Techniques and challenges”, Information, Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 3, 2016

A. Elsanousi, S. Ozturk, “Performance analysis of OFDM and OFDM-MIMO systems under fading channels”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 3249-3254, 2018

C. Krishnaswamy, N. Sireesha, T. Chinnasamy, V. Gowthaman, S. S. Narayanan, T. Sudhakar, M. Atmanand, “Underwater communication implementation with OFDM”, Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 259-266, 2015

W. B. Yang, T. C. Yang, “Characterization and modeling of underwater acoustic communications channels for frequency-shift-keying signals”, Oceans 2006, Boston, USA, September 18-21, 2006

O. Kaiwartya, A. H. Abdullah, Y. Cao, R. S. Raw, S. Kumar, D. K. Lobiyal, I. F. Isnin, X. Liu, R. R. Shah, “T-MQM: Testbed-based multi-metric quality measurement of sensor deployment for precision agriculture-A case study”, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 16, No. 23, pp. 8649-8664, 2016

C. Raj, R. Sukumaran, “Stochastic network calculus for rician fading in underwater wireless networks”, Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 1465-1474, 2016

L. Zhang, M. Li, G. Li, “Symbol estimation for MIMO underwater acoustic communication based on a multiplicative noise model”, IEEE International Conference on Communication Problem-Solving, Beijing, China, December 5-7, 2014

D. B. Kilfoyle, J. C. Preisig, A. B. Baggeroer, “Spatial modulation experiments in the underwater acoustic channel”, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 406-415, 2005

B. Li, J. Huang, S. Zhou, K. Ball, M. Stojanovic, L. Freitag, P. Willett, “MIMO-OFDM for high-rate underwater acoustic communications”, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 634-644, 2009

L. Zhang, M. Li, G. Li, R. Wang, “Symbol estimation algorithm for MIMO underwater acoustic communication system based on a multiplicative noise model”, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol. 2015, Article ID 719025, 2015

T. Karp, S. Trautmann, N. J. Fliege, “Zero-forcing frequency-domain equalization for generalized DMT transceivers with insufficient guard interval”, EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Vol. 10, pp. 1446-1459, 2004

B. Pranitha, H. L. Minh, N. Aslam, L. Anjaneyulu, S. Vangal, “BER performance investigation of MIMO underwater acoustic communications”, 11th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing, Budapest, Hungary, July 18-20, 2018

K. Sankhe, S. Chaudhari, G. R. Murthy, “Distributed spatial modulation with dynamic frequency allocation”, Physical Communication, Vol. 23, pp. 65-75, 2017

K. M. Humadi, A. I. Sulyman, A. Alsanie, “Spatial modulation concept for massive multiuser MIMO systems”, International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2014, Article ID 563273, 2014

G. Qiao, Z. Babar, L. Ma, S. Liu, J. Wu, “MIMO-OFDM underwater acoustic communication systems: a review”, Physical Communication, Vol. 23, pp. 56-64, 2017

Manjiti, R. Kaushik, “MIMO-OFDM and IDMA scheme in underwater communication”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 2971-2976, 2016

J. Poncela, M. C. Aguayo, P. Otero, “Wireless underwater communications”, Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 547-560, 2012

M. R. C. Raj, R. Sukumaran, “Modeling Rayleigh fading channel in underwater wireless communication networks using stochastic network calculus”, Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society, Vol. 84, No. 1-2, pp. 29, 2017

B. Pranitha, L. Anjaneyulu, “Review of research trends in underwater communications-A technical survey”, International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, Melmaruvathur, India, April 6-8, 2016

H. Esmaiel, D. Jiang, “Multicarrier communication for underwater acoustic channel”, International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol. 6, pp. 361-376, 2013

M. Naderi, Μ. Patzold, A. G. Zajic, “A geometry-based channel model for shallow underwater acoustic channels under the rough surface and bottom scattering conditions”, ΙΕΕΕ Fifth International Conference on Communications and Electronics, Danang, Vietnam, July 30-August 1, 2014

D. V. Ha, N. V. Duc, M. Patzold, “SINR analysis of OFDM systems using a geometry-based underwater acoustic channel model”, 26th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications, Hong Kong, China, August 30-September 2, 2015

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487