Energy Design and Optimization of a Greenhouse: A Heating, Cooling and Lighting Study

A. Belkadi, D. Mezghani, A. Mami


This paper presents a new approach to properly optimize the energy consumption in a greenhouse. An improved intermediate modeling to establish the energy balance in a greenhouse within a higher precision was adopted. While the classical model focuses on the efficient cooling and heating demands and neglects the profound impact of lighting parameters, it was shown that these three necessary components are interdependent, and they should be taken into account all together to comfortably reach optimal crop production and energy consumption. This study’s contribution is the classical model’s improvement and the demonstration of the fact that the heat released by the luminaries and the energy used by this equipment has fundamental consequences on the energy balance as well as the preferred choice of the possible shape of the greenhouse and its adequate cover.


cooling; energy; greenhouse design; heating; lighting

Full Text:



S. D’Arpa, I. Petrosillo, V. F. Uricchio, G. Zurlini, G. Colangelo, G. Starace, D. E. Bruno, “Heating requirements in greenhouses farming in south of italy: evaluation of ground source heat pump utilization”, Energy Efficiency, Vol. 9, No. 5, 2015

X. Qin, X. Shen, H. Sun, Q. Guo, “A quasi-dynamic model and corresponding calculation method for integrated energy system with electricity and heat”, Energy Procedia, Vol. 158, pp. 6413-6418, 2019

K. A. Joudi, A. A. Farhan, “A dynamic model and an experimental study for the internal air and soil temperatures in an innovative greenhouse”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 91, pp. 76–82, 2015

O. Jolliet, L. Danloy, J. B. Gay, G. L. Munday, A. Reist, “Horticern: an improved static model for predicting the energy consumption of a greenhouse”, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 55, No. 3-4, pp. 265-294, 1991

J. P. Chiapale, C. Kittas, O. De Villele, “Estimation regionale des besoins de chauffage des serres”, Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 115, pp. 493-503, 1981

L. G. Morris, “Some aspects of the control of plant environment”, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Vol. 1, pp. 156–66, 1956

J. J. J. Breuer, T. H. Short, “Greenhouse energy demands comparisons for the Netherlands and Ohio”, Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 174, pp. 145–154, 1985

M. Tunc, J. E. S. Venart, K. Sollows, “Bivalent (hybrid) heat pumpoil heating systems for greenhouses”, Journal of Heat Recover Systems, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 483–491, 1985

J. M. Hill, Dynamic Modeling of Tree Growth and Energy Use in a Nursery Greenhouse Using Matlab and Simulink, Cornell University, 2006

E. Fitz-Rodriguez, C. Kubota, G. A. Giacomelli, M. E. Tignor, S. B. Wilson, M. McMahon, “Dynamic modeling and simulation of greenhouse environments under several scenarios: a web based application”, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 70, No. 1, pp. 105–116, 2010

P. Chandra, L. D. Albright, “Analytical determination of the effect on greenhouse heating requirements of using night curtains”, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 994–1000, 1981

K. V. Garzoli, J. Blackwell, “An analysis of the nocturnal heat loss from a double skin plastic greenhouse”, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 75–86, 1987

K. V. Garzoli, J. Blackwell, “An analysis of the nocturnal heat loss from a single skin plastic greenhouse”, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 203–214, 1981

R. D. Singh, G. N. Tiwari, “Energy conservation in the greenhouse system: A steady state analysis”, Energy, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 2367–2373, 2010

V. P. Sethi, “On the selection of shape and orientation of a greenhouse: thermal modeling and experimental validation”, Solar Energy, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 21–38, 2009

F. Xu, S. Li, C. Ma, S. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Liu, B. Hu, S. Wang, “Thermal environment of chinese solar greenhouses: analysis and simulation”, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 991–997, 2013

R. B. Ali, E. Aridhi, M. Abbes, A. Mami, “Fuzzy Logic Controller of Temperature and Humidity Inside an Agricultural Greenhouse”, 7th International Renewable Energy Congress, Hammamet, Tunisia, March 22-24, 2017

G. Singh, P. P. Singh, P. P. S. Lubana, K. G. Singh, “Formulation and validation of a mathematical model of the microclimate of a greenhouse”, Renewable Energy, Vol. 31, No. 10, pp. 1541–1560, 2006

S. Sanford, Reducing Greenhouse Energy Consumption-An Overview, University of Wisconsin–Extension, 2011

G. Papadakis, D. Briassoulis, G. S. Mugnozza, G. Vox, P. Feuilloley, J. A. Stoffers, “Review Paper (SE—Structures and Environment): radiometric and thermal properties of, and testing methods for, greenhouse covering materials, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 7–38, 2000

L. D. Albright, Environment Control for Animals and Plants, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1990

G. N. Tiwari, M. Din, N. S. L. Srivastava, D. Jain, M. S. Sodha, “Evaluation of solar fraction (Fn) for north wall of a controlled environment greenhouse: an experimental validation”, International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 203–215, 2002

M. Dorais, “The Use of Supplemental Lighting for Vegetable Crop Production: Light Intensity, Crop Response, Nutrition, Crop Management, Cultural Practices”, Canadian Greenhouse Conference, October 9, 2003

C. A. Campiotti, G. Morosinotto, G. Puglisi, E. Schettini, G. Vox, “Performance evaluation of a solar cooling plant applied for greenhouse thermal control”, Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Vol. 8, pp. 664– 669, 2016

Y. Noorollahi, P. Bigdelou, F. Pourfayaz, H. Yousefi, “Numerical modeling and economic analysis of a ground source heat pump for supplying energy for a greenhouse in Alborz province, Iran”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 131, pp. 145-154, 2016

D. A. Damers, M. Dorais, C. H. Wien, A. Gosselin, “Effects of supplemental light duration on greenhouse tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) plants and fruit yields”, Scientia Horticulturae, Vol. 74, No. 4, pp. 295-306, 1998

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487