Development of a Matlab Code for Plane Wave Lens and its Validation by Autodyn-2D

K. Naeem, A. Hussain


Plane wave generator is normally composed of two explosives having dissimilar detonation velocity. It is used for directing the spherically outgoing shock wave front to a planar form. Plane wave generators are utilized to find material behavior under dynamic loading. This paper presents the shock arrival time for two plane wave generators by developed Matlab code and its comparison with Ansys Autodyn. The diameter of both plane wave generators is kept the same. One plane wave generator is composed of Octogen and Barium Nitrate and the other is composed of Octogen and Tri Nitro Toluene. Obtained results were surprisingly in agreement. Maximum and minimum obtained flatness for the plane wave were ±0.56 and ±0.08ms respectively within the whole diameter of the plane wave generator. The developed code can be utilized to find the profile of a plane wave generator, minimizing the time and cost many times.


plane wave lens; HMX; TNT; Matlab; shock front; explosive lens

Full Text:



A. Mitchell, W. Nellis, “Diagnostic system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory two‐stage light‐gas gun”, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 347-359, 1981

L. C. Chhabildas, M. D. Knudson, “Techniques to launch projectile plates to very high velocities”, in: High-Pressure Shock Compression of Solids VIII, Springer, pp. 143-199, 2005

L. C. Chhabildas, Hypervelocity Launch Capabilities to Over 10km/s, Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1991

J. E. Osher, H. H. Chau, G. R. Gathers, R. S. Lee, R. C. Weingart, “Application of a 100-kV electric gun for hypervelocity impact studies”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1-4, pp. 501-507, 1987

A. B. Wenzel, “A review of explosive accelerators for hypervelocity impact”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1-4, pp. 681-692, 1987

W. Xiong, X. Zang, Z. Guan, Y. He, L. Qiao, L. Guo, “Study of simple plane wave generator with an air-metal barrier”, Defence Technology, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 190-197, 2014

B. Olinger, Solid Explosive Plane-Wave Lenses Pressed-to-Shape with Dies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA, 2007

K. Jin, X. M. Zhou, X. H. Liu, F. Xi, “Design of Plane-wave Lens Utilizing Nitromethane and Lead [J]”, Energetic Materials, Vol. 2, 2005

S. N. Li, X. Zhou, S. Yuan, P. Song, W. Wang, S. H. Yei, “Manufacture of Low Equivalent Liquid Explosive Lens without Lead [J]”, Chinese Journal of Energetic Materials, Vol. 3, 2006

J. Crutchmer, Slow PBX and Plane-Wave Lens Development, Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason, Amarillo, USA, 1973

R. H. Christian, F. L. Yarger, “Equation of state of gases by shock wave measurements. I. Experimental method and the Hugoniot of argon”, The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 2042-2044, 1955

H. Kato, K. Murata, S. Itoh, Y. Kato, “Application of overdriven detonation in high density explosive to shaped charge”, 23rd International Symposium on Ballistics, Tarragona, Spain, April 16-20, 2007

A. Merendino, J. M. Regan, S. Kronman, A Method of Obtaining a Massive Hypervelocity Pellet From a Shaped Charge Jet, Ballistic Research Laboratories, USA, 1963

M. A. Meyers, U. R. Andrade, A. H. Chokshi, “The effect of grain size on the high-strain, high-strain-rate behavior of copper”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 26, No. 11, pp. 2881-2893, 1995

K. Naeem, A. Hussain, “Numerical and experimental study of wave shaper effects on detonation wave front”, Defence Technology, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 45-50, 2017

J. Petit, V. Jeanclaude, C. Fressengeas, “Breakup of copper shaped-charge jets: Experiment, numerical simulations, and analytical modeling”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 98, No. 12, pp. 123521-1–123521-10, 2005

M. Ahmed, A. Q. Malik, S. A. Rofi, Z. X. Huang, “Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 913-916, 2016

E. Lee, M. Finger, W. Collins, JWL Equation of State Coefficients for High Explosives, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., 1973

C. M. Tarver, J. W. Kury, R. D. Breithaupt, “Detonation waves in triaminotrinitrobenzene”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 82, No. 8, pp. 3771-3782, 1997

B. Narin, Y. Ozyoruk, A. Ulas, “Two dimensional numerical prediction of deflagration-to-detonation transition in porous energetic materials”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 273, pp. 44-52, 2014

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487