Non Excusable Delays in Construction Industry: A Causal Study

S. H. Khahro, Z. A. Memon


Delays are one of the major problems construction industry faces. Delays can lead to many negative effects such as arbitration between owners and contractors, increased cost, loss of productivity and revenue, and contract termination. Various studies have been carried out to highlight the general causes of delays and suggest possible remedial measures to minimize the effect of delays on a project. This study aims to highlight the critical factors with specific reference to non-excusable delays (NEDs) only. It also suggests possible remedial measures to minimize the effects of contractor-oriented NEDs which is a significant type of delays in the construction industry. A qualitative study has been conducted for this research. Data have been collected by the use of a set of questionnaires on numerous construction project stakeholders. Relative importance index (RII) has been used for prioritizing the factors. Results show that slow material mobilization, subcontractor unreliability and shortage of labor and materials are the most critical NED causes. This paper aims to provide a prerequisite knowledge to practitioners to make a more informed decision in managing NED.


delays; non-excusable delay; construction projects; project failure; mitigation

Full Text:



Y. C. Kog, “Project Management and Delay Factors of Public Housing Construction”, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, Vol. 23, No. 1, p. 04017028, 2018

T. H. Ali, S. H. Khahro, F. A. Memon, “Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry”, Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 341-345, 2014

D. Arditi, S. Nayak, A. Damci, “Effect of organizational culture on delay in construction”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 136-147, 2017

PCO, Importance of Schedule Delay Analysis on Construction Projects – A Contractor’s Perspective, available at:, 2017

Z. A. Memon, “Remedial Measure for Delays at Construction Stage”, Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 9-20, 2004

M. Lepage, “Types of Schedule Delays in Construction Projects”, available at:, 2017

P. W. G. Morris, G. H. Hough, The Anatomy of Major Projects, Wiley, 1987

M. Z. A. Majid, R. McCaffer, “Factors of Non-Excusable Delays That Influence Contractors’ Performance”, Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 42-49, 1998

S. A. H. Tumi, “Causes of Delays in Construction Industry in Libya”, International Conference on Economics and Administration, Bucharest, Romania, November 14-15, 2009

M. E. A. El-Razek, H. A. Bassioni, M. A. Mobarak, “Causes of Delay in Building Construction Projects in Egypt”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 134, No. 11, pp. 831-840, 2008

S. A. Assaf, M. Al-Khalil, M. Al-Hazmi, “Causes of Delay in Large Building Construction Projects”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 349-257, 2006

M. Sambasivan, Y. K. Soon, “Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 517-526, 2007

N. Hamzah, M. A. Khoiry, I. Arshad, N. M. Tawil, A. I. Che Ani, “Cause of construction delay - Theoretical framework”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 20, pp. 490-495, 2011

G. Agyekum-Mensah, A. D. Knight, “The professionals’ perspective on the causes of project delay in the construction industry”, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 828-841, 2017

R. H. Ansah, S. Sorooshian, S. Bin Mustafa, “The 4Ps: A framework for evaluating construction projects delays”, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 1222-1227, 2018

A. Adam, P. E. B. Josephson, G. Lindahl, “Aggregation of factors causing cost overruns and time delays in large public construction projects: Trends and implications”, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 393-406, 2017

A. Yusufzai, “Pakistan’s GDP Growth Highest in Decade: Economic Survey”, Propakistani, available at:, 2017

O. T. Ibironke, T. O. Oladinrin, O. Adeniyi, I. V. Eboreime, “Analysis of non-excusable delay factors influencing contractors’ performance in Lagos State, Nigeria”, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 53-72, 2013

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487