An Investigation of Temperature and Wind Impact on ACSR Transmission Line Sag and Tension

M. Z. Abbasi, B. Noor, M. A. Aman, S. Farooqi, F. W. Karam


Power transmission is mainly based on overhead transmission lines with conductors being supported by transmission towers. Transmission lines are subjected to environmental stress (temperature changes, winds, snow etc), have an impact on the surrounding areas (visual pollution, building restrictions) and experience heavy losses due to resistive, magnetic and capacitive effects. Thus, proper modeling and installation of these conductors are necessary. The conductors are generally installed in a catenary shape to minimize the capacitive effects and to balance the tension. This paper presents an investigation on the sag and tension behavior under different temperature and wind of ACSR (Aluminum Conductor-Steel Reinforced) lines. Four different cases of temperature and wind are tested to calculate sag and tension. Simulation setup is done in ETAP (electrical transient and analysis program). Results are recorded and discussed.


ACSR; overhead; line; transmission; conductors; span; sag; temperature; variation

Full Text:



J. Quintana, V. Garza, C. Zamudio, “Sag-tension calculation program for power substations”, 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2016, Florence, Italy, pp. 3889–3893, IEEE, 2016

M. Keshavarzian, C. H. Priebe, “Sag and tension calculations for overhead transmission lines at high temperatures-modified ruling span method”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 777–783, 2000

V. K. Mehta, R. Mehta, Principles of Power Systems, S. Chand, New Delhi, India, 2011

D. Pylarinos, I. Pellas, “Incorporating Open/Free GIS and GPS Software in Power Transmission Line Routine Work: The Case of Crete and Rhodes”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1316-1322, 2017

M. T. Bedialauneta, I. Albizu, E. Fernandez, A. J. Mazon, S. de Arriba, “Monitoring the tension and the temperature in an overhead line”, 16th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), Yasmine Hammamet, Tunisia, pp. 245–248, IEEE, 2012

F. I. Oluwajobi, O. S. Ale, A. Ariyanninuola, “Effect of sag on transmission line”, Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 627–630, 2012

Southwire Company, Overhead conductor manual, Southwire Company, Carrollton, Georgia, USA, 2007

A. K. Akhani, Mechanical design of overhead transmission lines, available at:, 2014

ETAP, “Line Sag & Tension Analysis”, available at:

C. J. Soni, P. R. Gandhi, S. M. Takalkar, “Design and analysis of 11 kv distribution system using ETAP software”, 2015 International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy Information and Commuincation, Chennai, India, pp. 0451–0456, IEEE, 2015

M. Aien, R. Ramezani, S. Mohsen Ghavami, “Probabilistic load flow considering wind generation uncertainty”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 126-132, 2011

M. A. Aman, S. Ahmad, A. Asar, B. Noor, “Analyzing the diverse impacts of conventional distributed energy resources on distribution system”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 8, No. 10, pp. 390-396, 2017

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487