Decentralized Virtual Impedance-based Circulating Current Suppression Control for Islanded Microgrids
Published online first on January 19, 2021.
Parallel connected inverters in islanded mode, are getting momentous attention due to their ability to increase the power distribution and reliability of a power system. When there are different ratings of Distributed Generation (DG) units, they will operate in parallel connection due to different output voltages, impedance mismatch, or different phase that can cause current to flow between DG units. The magnitude of this circulating current sometimes can be very large and damage the DG inverters and also cause power losses that affect power-sharing accuracy, power quality, and the efficiency of the Microgrid (MG) system. Droop control, improved droop control, and virtual impedance control techniques and modifications in the virtual impedance control technique are widely used to suppress the circulating current. However, the addition of the virtual impedance to each inverter to compensate the output impedance is resistive or inductive in nature. The resistive nature of the output impedance always causes a certain voltage drop, whereas the inductive nature of the output impedance causes phase delay for the output voltage. Both problems are addressed by the proposed control mechanism in this paper. Negative resistance, along with virtual impedance, is utilized in the proposed control strategy. The output impedance is to be maintained as inductive in nature to achieve good load sharing in droop control MGs. The simulation results validate the proposed control scheme.
X. She and A. Huang, "Solid state transformer in the future smart electrical system," in IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, Jul. 2013, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/PESMG.2013.6672768
S. M. Ashabani and Y. A. I. Mohamed, "New Family of Microgrid Control and Management Strategies in Smart Distribution Grids-Analysis, Comparison and Testing," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 2257-2269, Sep. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2306016
E. Pathan and S. A. Zulkifli, "Passive damping techniques with LCL filter in inverter-grid connected," Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, vol. 25, no. S, pp. 45-52, 2017.
E. Pathan, S. A. Zulkifli, U. B. Tayab, and R. Jackson, "Small Signal Modeling of Inverter-based Grid-Connected Microgrid to Determine the Zero-Pole Drift Control with Dynamic Power Sharing Controller," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3790-3795, Feb. 2019. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2465
E. Pathan, A. A. Bakar, S. A. Zulkifi, M. H. Khan, H. Arshad, and M. Asad, "A Robust Frequency Controller based on Linear Matrix Inequality for a Parallel Islanded Microgrid," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 6264-6269, Oct. 2020. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3769
H. Xiao, A. Luo, Z. Shuai, G. Jin, and Y. Huang, "An Improved Control Method for Multiple Bidirectional Power Converters in Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 340-347, Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2015.2469758
B. Wei, J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vásquez, and X. Guo, "A Circulating-Current Suppression Method for Parallel-Connected Voltage-Source Inverters With Common DC and AC Buses," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 3758-3769, Jul. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2017.2681620
C. Hou, "A Multicarrier PWM for Parallel Three-Phase Active Front-End Converters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 2753-2759, Jun. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2012.2220860
Z. Ye, D. Boroyevich, J.-Y. Choi, and F. C. Lee, "Control of circulating current in two parallel three-phase boost rectifiers," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 609-615, Sep. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2002.802170
C. Pan and Y. Liao, "Modeling and Control of Circulating Currents for Parallel Three-Phase Boost Rectifiers With Different Load Sharing," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2776-2785, Jul. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.925647
C. Pan and Y. Liao, "Modeling and Coordinate Control of Circulating Currents in Parallel Three-Phase Boost Rectifiers," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 825-838, Apr. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2007.891776
A. Bidram and A. Davoudi, "Hierarchical Structure of Microgrids Control System," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1963-1976, Dec. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2012.2197425
S. Peyghami, H. Mokhtari, and F. Blaabjerg, "Decentralized Load Sharing in a Low-Voltage Direct Current Microgrid With an Adaptive Droop Approach Based on a Superimposed Frequency," IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1205-1215, Sep. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/JESTPE.2017.2674300
C. Chang, D. Gorinevsky, and S. Lall, "Stability Analysis of Distributed Power Generation With Droop Inverters," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 3295-3303, Nov. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2388673
J. M. Guerrero, L. G. de Vicuna, J. Matas, J. Miret, and M. Castilla, "Output impedance design of parallel-connected UPS inverters," in IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Ajaccio, France, May 2004, vol. 2, pp. 1123-1128. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE.2004.1571971
J. He and Y. W. Li, "Analysis, Design, and Implementation of Virtual Impedance for Power Electronics Interfaced Distributed Generation," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 2525-2538, Nov. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2011.2168592
H. Han, Y. Liu, Y. Sun, M. Su, and J. M. Guerrero, "An Improved Droop Control Strategy for Reactive Power Sharing in Islanded Microgrid," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 3133-3141, Jun. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2014.2332181
A. Tuladhar, H. Jin, T. Unger, and K. Mauch, "Control of parallel inverters in distributed AC power systems with consideration of line impedance effect," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 131-138, Jan. 2000. https://doi.org/10.1109/28.821807
H. Mahmood, D. Michaelson, and J. Jiang, "Reactive Power Sharing in Islanded Microgrids Using Adaptive Voltage Droop Control," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 3052-3060, Nov. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2015.2399232
C. Lee, C. Chu, and P. Cheng, "A New Droop Control Method for the Autonomous Operation of Distributed Energy Resource Interface Converters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1980-1993, Apr. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2012.2205944
P. P. Das, S. Chattopadhayay, and M. Palmal, "A d-q Voltage Droop Control Method With Dynamically Phase-Shifted Phase-Locked Loop for Inverter Paralleling Without Any Communication Between Individual Inverters," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 4591-4600, Jun. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2017.2674607
Q. N. U. Islam, S. M. Abdullah, and M. A. Hossain, "Optimized Controller Design for an Islanded Microgrid using Non-dominated Sorting Sine Cosine Algorithm," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 6052-6056, Aug. 2020. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3468
V. V. Prabhakaran and A. Singh, "Enhancing Power Quality in PV-SOFC Microgrids Using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4616-4622, Oct. 2019. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2963
M. Zhang, Z. Du, X. Lin, and J. Chen, "Control Strategy Design and Parameter Selection for Suppressing Circulating Current Among SSTs in Parallel," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1602-1609, Jul. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2015.2402835
H. Mahmood, D. Michaelson, and J. Jiang, "Accurate Reactive Power Sharing in an Islanded Microgrid Using Adaptive Virtual Impedances," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 1605-1617, Mar. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2014.2314721
Y. Sun, X. Hou, J. Yang, H. Han, M. Su, and J. M. Guerrero, "New Perspectives on Droop Control in AC Microgrid," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 5741-5745, Jul. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2017.2677328
M. Zhang, B. Song, and J. Wang, "Circulating Current Control Strategy Based on Equivalent Feeder for Parallel Inverters in Islanded Microgrid," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 595-605, Jan. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2018.2867588
B. Wei, J. M. Guerrero, and X. Guo, "Cross-circulating current suppression method for parallel three-phase two-level inverters," in 5th International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Berlin, Germany, Sep. 2015, pp. 423-427. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCE-Berlin.2015.7391297
MetricsAbstract Views: 112
PDF Downloads: 71
Copyright (c) 2021 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.