Farm-Based Environmental and Economic Impacts of the Drip Irrigation System
Drip irrigation has received considerable attention from policy makers, researchers, and economists for its ability to contribute significantly improvements to water resource development, agricultural productivity, economic growth, and environmental sustainability. In this paper, the impact of drip irrigation has been studied on a farming system in terms of environmental and economic conditions using the developed Trickle Irrigation System Design Modeling (TISD). The environmental conditions included soil type, land topography, climate zones, water sources, their quality, and the farm dimensions. The economic conditions comprised of real and nominal interest rates, raw land price, and the energy and labor escalation rates. The study considered only the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) to indicate the impact of environmental and economic parameters on the use of the drip irrigation system. The study used tomato-sesame as a crop rotation (line-source) and citrus as a long-life tree (point-source). Some parameters such as soil type, land topography, and water quality had a significant impact on the BCR.
D. Seckler, U. Amarasinghe, D. Molden, R. de Silva, and R. Barker, World water demand and supply, 1990 to 2025: Scenarios and issues. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute, 1998.
M. E. Jensen, R. D. Burman, and R. G. Allen, Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements. New York, NY, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1990.
J. Keller and R. D. Bliesner, Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 1990.
C. M. Burt, A. J. Clemmens, R. Bliesner, J. L. Merriam, and L. Hardy, Selection of Irrigation Methods for Agriculture. New York, NY, USA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000.
M. Stubbs, “Irrigation in U.S. Agriculture: On-Farm Technologies and Best Management Practices,” Congressional Research Service, 7–5700, Oct. 2016.
J. Seyedmohammadi, L. Esmaeelnejad, and H. Ramezanpour, “Land suitability assessment for optimum management of water consumption in precise agriculture,” Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, vol. 2, no. 3, Sep. 2016, Art. no. 162.
W. R. Adams and K. T. Zeleke, “Diurnal effects on the efficiency of drip irrigation,” Irrigation Science, vol. 2, no. 35, pp. 141–157, Nov. 2016.
X. Chen, K. R. Thorp, Z. Ouyang, Y. Hou, B. Zhou, and Y. Li, “Energy consumption due to groundwater pumping for irrigation in the North China Plain,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 669, pp. 1033–1042, Jun. 2019.03.179.
C. Wei et al., “Effects of Irrigation Water Salinity on Soil Properties, N2O Emission and Yield of Spring Maize under Mulched Drip Irrigation,” Water, vol. 11, no. 8, Aug. 2019, Art. no. 1548.
I. Fernandez Garcia et al., “Trends and Challenges in Irrigation Scheduling in the Semi-Arid Area of Spain,” Water, vol. 12, no. 3, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 785.
A. Y. Yimam, T. T. Assefa, N. F. Adane, S. A. Tilahun, M. K. Jha, and M. R. Reyes, “Experimental Evaluation for the Impacts of Conservation Agriculture with Drip Irrigation on Crop Coefficient and Soil Properties in the Sub-Humid Ethiopian Highlands,” Water, vol. 12, no. 4, Apr. 2020, Art. no. 947.
A. Narayanamoorthy, “Economics of Drip Irrigation in Sugarcane Cultivation: Case Study of a Farmer from Tamil Nadu,” Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 235–248, 2005.
G. Mandal, S. Kumar, R. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Effect of drip irrigation and plant spacing on yield, quality and economic return of guava (Psidium guajava L.) grown in saline soil,” Acta horticulturae, vol. 735, no. 60, pp. 427–432, 2007.
J. Tan and Y. Kang, “Changes in Soil Properties Under the Influences of Cropping and Drip Irrigation During the Reclamation of Severe Salt-Affected Soils,” Agricultural Sciences in China, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1228–1237, Oct. 2009.
H. K. Soussa, “Effects of Drip Irrigation Water Amount on Crop Yield, Productivity and Efficiency of Water Use in Desert Regions in Egypt,” Nile Basin Water Science& Engineering Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 96–109, 2010.
D. S. Kumar and K. Palanisami, “Impact of drip irrigation on farming system: evidence from Southern India,” Agricultural Economics Research Review, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 265–272, 2010.
S. Halder, D. Sadhukhan, and R. Verma, “Adaptability of drip irrigation in coastal and hard rock terrain of west bengal, India,” presented at the International Ground Water Conference 2012, Maharashtra India, Jan. 2012.
J. A. C. Bolanos, W. Ortiz, and R. Bhandari, “Techno-economic feasibility study of solar and wind based irrigation systems in Northern Colombia,” presented at the The 4th World Sustainability Forum, Basel, Switzerland, 2014, pp. 1–20.
S. K. Biswas, A. R. Akanda, M. S. Rahman, and M. A. Hossain, “Effect of drip irrigation and mulching on yield, water-use efficiency and economics of tomato,” Plant, Soil and Environment, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 97–102, Mar. 2015.
A. Narayanamoorthy and N. Devika, “Economic and Resource Impacts of Drip Method of Irrigation on Okra Cultivation: An Analysis of Field Survey Data,” Journal of Land and Rural Studies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 15–33, Jan. 2018.
W. M. A. Khalifa, “An Economic Analysis of crops Production using a Trickle Irrigation System,” International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, vol. 11, no. 8, 2020, Art. no. 11A8J.
W. M. A. Khalifa, “Computer Model for Trickle Irrigation System Design,” International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, vol. 11, no. 7, 2020, Art. no. 11A07U.
W. M. A. Khalifa and N. A. A. Mahmoud, “Effects of Drip Irrigation System for Long-Life Fruit Trees on Different Economic Bases,” International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, vol. 11, no. 11, 2020, Art. no. 11A11P.
“Irrigation Water Requirements,” in Part 623 National Engineering Handbook, Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1993.
Technical Guidelines for Irrigation Suitability Land Classification. Denver, CO, USA: U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center Land Suitability and Water Quality Group, 2005.
H. M. A. Ragheb, M. A. Gameh, S. M. Ismail, and N. A. Abou Al-Rejal, “Water Distribution Patterns of Drip Irrigation in Sandy Calcareous Soil as Affected by Discharge Rate and Amount of Irrigation Water,” Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Meteorology, Environment & Arid Land Agriculture Sciences, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 141–161, 2011.
I. R. Kareem, H. A. Omran, and R. S. Hassan, “Operating a drip irrigation system in different types of soil,” in First International Symposium on Urban Development: Koya as a Case Study, vol. 17, WIT Press, 2013, pp. 105–116.
K. Khaskhoussy, B. Kahlaoui, B. M. Nefzi, O. Jozdan, A. Dakheel, and M. Hachicha, “Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Heavy Metals Distribution in a Tunisian Soil,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 805–810, Jun. 2015.
Y.-W. Fan, N. Huang, J. Zhang, and T. Zhao, “Simulation of Soil Wetting Pattern of Vertical Moistube-Irrigation,” Water, vol. 10, no. 5, May 2018, Art. no. 601.
A. Phocaides, “CHAPTER 19: An outline for engineering investigation for a pressurized irrigation system,” in Pressurized Irrigation Techniques, 2nd ed., Rome, Italy: FAO, 2007.
M. D. Dukes, D. Z. Haman, F. Lamm, J. R. Buchanan, and C. R. Camp, “Site Selection for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems in the Humid Region,” presented at the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress 2005, Apr. 2012.
L. Karlberg, “Irrigation with saline water using low-cost drip-irrigation systems in sub-Saharan Africa,” Ph.D. dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2005.
A. M. Al-Omran, A. R. Al-Harbi, M. A. Wahb-Allah, M. Nadeem, and A. Al-Eter, “Impact of irrigation water quality, irrigation systems, irrigation rates and soil amendments on tomato production in sandy calcareous soil,” Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 59–73, Feb. 2010.
S. J. Oad, H. Maqsood, A. L. Qureshi, S. Ahmed, I. A. Channa, and M. I. Ali, “Farm-based Evaluation of Sustainable Alternative Irrigation Practices,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 4310–4314, Jun. 2019.
G. P. Mengu, E. Akkuzu, S. Anac, and S. Sensoy, “Impact of Climate Change on Irrigated Agriculture,” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 20, no. 3a, pp. 823–830, 2011.
S. Mohan and N. Ramsundram, “Climate Change and its Impact on Irrigation Water Requirements on Temporal Scale,” Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2014.
Y. Liu, H. Yang, J. Li, Y. Li, and H. Yan, “Estimation of irrigation requirements for drip-irrigated maize in a sub-humid climate,” Journal of Integrative Agriculture, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 677–692, Mar. 2018.
P. Polak, B. Nanes, and D. Adhikari, “A Low Cost Drip Irrigation System for Small Farmers in Developing Countries,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 119–124, 1997.
C. Wilde, J. Johnson, and J. P. Bordovsky, “Economic analysis of subsurface drip irrigation system uniformity,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 357–361, 2009.
S. Amosson et al., Economics of Irrigation Systems. Texas A&M AgriLife Communications, 2011.
S. K. Deshmukh, “Improving the water and energy efficiency for food production through drip irrigation in India,” Water and Energy International, vol. 58, no. 1, 2015.
R. Akhila, Y. Sai Manohar, J. Bangarraju, and V. Rajagopal, “Wind-Solar Hybrid Energy Powered for Drip Irrigation System,” in Proceedings of XI Control Instrumentation System Conference, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2014, pp. 148–153.
M. A. Pardo Picazo, J. M. Juarez, and D. Garcia-Marquez, “Energy Consumption Optimization in Irrigation Networks Supplied by a Standalone Direct Pumping Photovoltaic System,” Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 11, Nov. 2018, Art. no. 4203.
FAOSTAT. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home (accessed Oct. 03, 2020).
J. Doorenbos and W. O. Pruitt, Crop Water Requirements. Rome, Italy: FAO, 1992.
A. P. Savva and K. Frenken, Irrigation Manual: Planning, Development Monitoring and Evaluation of Irrigated Agriculture with Farmer Participation. Rome, Italy: FAO, 2002.
P. Steduto, T. C. Hsiao, E. Fereres, and D. Raes, Crop Yield Response to Water. Rome, Italy: FAO, 2012.
K. H. N. Reddy, K. A. Kumar, and M. V. Ramana, “Design and Development of Drip Irrigation System Software in Visual Basic,” International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 339–346, 2017.
“Electricity Facts 2017/2018 Price hikes continue | Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights.” https://eipr.org/en/publications/electricity-facts-20172018-price-hikes-continue (accessed Oct. 03, 2020).
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. https://www.capmas.gov.eg/HomePage.aspx (accessed Oct. 03, 2020).
Landscape Irrigation Price List. Rain Bird, 2020.
R. S. Ayers and D. W. Westcott, Water quality for agriculture. Rome, Italy: FAO, 1985.
E. V. Maas, “Salinity and citriculture,” Tree Physiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 195–216, Mar. 1993.
G. Fipps, Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management Strategies. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University System, 1996.
B. Lamsal and V. Jindal, “Variation in Electrical Conductivity of Selected Fruit Juices During Continuous Ohmic Heating,” International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47–56, Feb. 2014.  J. Doorenbos and A. H. Kassam, Yield response to water. Rome, Italy: FAO, 1979.
M. Dorai, A. Papadopoulos, and A. Gosselin, “Influence of electric conductivity management on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality,” Agronomie, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 367–383, 2001.
A. A. Murkute, S. Sharma, and S. K. Singh, “Citrus in terms of soil and water salinity: A review,” Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 393–402, Jun. 2005.
M. A. Akanji, S. O. Oshunsanya, and A. Alomran, “Electrical conductivity method for predicting yields of two yam (Dioscorea alata) cultivars in a coarse textured soil,” International Soil and Water Conservation Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 230–236, 2018.
“Interest Rate - Calculate Simple and Compound Interest Rates,” Corporate Finance Institute. https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/finance/interest-rate/ (accessed Oct. 03, 2020).
C. Banton, “Interest Rate: What the Lender Gets Paid for the Use of Assets,” Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/interestrate.asp (accessed Oct. 03, 2020).
MetricsAbstract Views: 95
PDF Downloads: 56
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.