Simulation of Dissolved Oxygen and Dissolved Substrate for Hasel River

Keywords: water quality models, rivers, dissolved oxygen, eutrophication, impact assessment


Hasel is considered a moderately polluted river in Germany. This study investigated its water quality, examining Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and dissolved substrate (COD) with the use of AQUASIM. The calibration procedure used observed data from various locations along the river. The model’s calibration was used to study the response of Hasel River to the effluents of wastewater treatment plants and sewer overflow emissions. Results revealed that high emissions from sewerage systems may reduce the oxygen concentration to low levels. Furthermore, joined sewer overflows may disrupt the oxygen levels for a long period. In addition, oxygen was over saturation in some periods of the calibration period. The proposed model can be utilized in future analyses, improving the functional understanding of ecological processes in rivers and the identification of ecological effective management strategies.


Download data is not yet available.


S. C. Chapra, Surface water quality modeling. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

R. B. J. Ambrose, T. A. Wool, and J. L. Martin, “WASP-Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program, Version 5.2-MDEP, Model documentation,” Environmental Research Laboratory - AScI Corporation, Athens, Georgia, USA 2001.

P. Reichert, AQUASIM 2.0: computer program for the identification and simulation of aquatic systems. Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), 1998.

U. von Gunten, M. Elovitz, and H. P. Kaiser, “Characterization of ozonation processes with conservative and reactive tracers: prediction of the degradation of micropollutants,” Analusis, vol. 7, no. 25, pp. 29–31, 1997.

D. Borchardt and P. Reichert, “River Water Quality Model no. 1 (RWQM1): Case study I. Compartmentalisation approach applied to oxygen balances in the River Lahn (Germany),” Water Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 41–49, Mar. 2001, doi: 10.2166/wst.2001.0247.

J. J. Kuiper, “Making eco logic and models work: an integrative approach to lake ecosystem modelling,” Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands, 2016.

Kenneth Irvine et al., “Water Framework Directive - An assessment of Mathematical Modelling in its Implementation in Ireland (2002-W-DS-11),” Environmental Protection Agency, Wexford, Ireland, 2005.

Kelsey G. Jencso, Brian L. McGlynn, Michael N. Gooseff, Steven M. Wondzell, Kenneth E. Bencala, and Lucy A. Marshall, “Hydrologic connectivity between landscapes and streams: Transferring reach- and plot-scale understanding to the catchment scale,” Water Resources Research, vol. 45, Art. no. W04428, Apr. 2009.

M. Hrachowitz et al., “Transit times—the link between hydrology and water quality at the catchment scale,” WIREs Water, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 629–657, May 2016, doi: 10.1002/wat2.1155.

S. G. Leibowitz, P. J. Wigington, K. A. Schofield, L. C. Alexander, M. K. Vanderhoof, and H. E. Golden, “Connectivity of Streams and Wetlands to Downstream Waters: An Integrated Systems Framework,” JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 298–322, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1111/1752-1688.12631.

K. M. Fritz et al., “Physical and Chemical Connectivity of Streams and Riparian Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Synthesis,” JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 323–345, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1111/1752-1688.12632.

J. Harvey and M. Gooseff, “River corridor science: Hydrologic exchange and ecological consequences from bedforms to basins,” Water Resources Research, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 6893–6922, Jul. 2015, doi: 10.1002/2015WR017617.

G. Weigelhofer, T. Hein, and E. Bondar-Kunze, “Phosphorus and Nitrogen Dynamics in Riverine Systems: Human Impacts and Management Options,” in Riverine Ecosystem Management: Science for Governing Towards a Sustainable Future, S. Schmutz and J. Sendzimir, Eds. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 187–202.

Y. Schindler Wildhaber et al., “Effects of river morphology, hydraulic gradients, and sediment deposition on water exchange and oxygen dynamics in salmonid redds,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 470–471, pp. 488–500, Feb. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.100.

C. Anibas et al., “A hierarchical approach on groundwater-surface water interaction in wetlands along the upper Biebrza River, Poland,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 2329–2346, 2012, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-2329-2012.

M. V. Japitana and M. E. C. Burce, “A Satellite-based Remote Sensing Technique for Surface Water Quality Estimation,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 3965–3970, Apr. 2019.

M. V. Japitana, M. E. C. Burce, and C. Ye, “A Geoinformatics-based Framework for Surface Water Quality Mapping and Monitoring,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 4120–4124, Jun. 2019.

M. Iwanyshyn, M. C. Ryan, and A. Chu, “Separation of physical loading from photosynthesis/respiration processes in rivers by mass balance,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 390, no. 1, pp. 205–214, Feb. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.09.038.

W. K. Dodds, A. M. Veach, C. M. Ruffing, D. M. Larson, J. L. Fischer, and K. H. Costigan, “Abiotic controls and temporal variability of river metabolism: multiyear analyses of Mississippi and Chattahoochee River data,” Freshwater Science, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1073–1087, Dec. 2013, doi: 10.1899/13-018.1.

R. Adrian et al., “Environmental Impacts—Lake Ecosystems,” in North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment, M. Quante and F. Colijn, Eds. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 315–340.

W. M. A. Khalifa, “Simulation of water quality for the El-Salam canal in Egypt,” presented at the Water Polution 2014, The Algarve, Portugal, May 2014, pp. 27–37, doi: 10.2495/WP140031.

W. M. A. Khalifa, “Evaluation of water quality parameters using numerical modeling approach for the El-Salam Canal in Egypt,” International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 99–112, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.21833/ijaas.2020.02.014.

Md. J. B. Alam, M. R. Islam, Z. Muyen, M. Mamun, and S. Islam, “Water quality parameters along rivers,” International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 159–167, Dec. 2007, doi: 10.1007/BF03325974.

“Thüringer Landesamt für Umwelt, Bergbau und Naturschutz.”

B. C. Yen, “Unsteady Flow Mathematical Modelling Techniques,” in Modelling of Rivers, H. W. Shen, Ed. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley, 1979, p. 13.1-13.33.

U. Y. Shamir and D. R. F. Harleman, “Numerical solutions for dispersion in porous mediums,” Water Resources Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 557–581, 1967, doi: 10.1029/WR003i002p00557.

H. B. Fischer, J. E. List, C. R. Koh, J. Imberger, and N. H. Brooks, Mixing in Inland and Coastal Waters. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1979.

P. Reichert, “AQUASIM – A Tool for Simulation and Data Analysis of Aquatic Systems,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 21–30, Jul. 1994, doi: 10.2166/wst.1994.0025.

P. Reichert, “Design techniques of a computer program for the identification of processes and the simulation of water quality in aquatic systems,” Environmental Software, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 199–210, Jan. 1995, doi: 10.1016/0266-9838(95)00010-I.

“Software, Eawag” (accessed Jul. 17 2020)

M. Owens, R. W. Edwards, and J. W. Gibbs, “Some reaeration studies in streams,” Air and water pollution, vol. 8, pp. 469–486, Sep. 1964.

P. Wolf, Simulation des Sauerstoffhaushaltes in Fliessgewässern. Vol. 53. Forschungs- und Entwicklungsinstitut für Industrie- und Siedlungswasserwirtschaft sowie Abfallwirtschaft, 1974.

A. E. Greenberg, R. R. Trussell, and L. S. Clesceri, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 16th ed. Washington, DC, USA: APHA, 1985.

R. V. Thomann and J. A. Mueller, Principles of Surface Water Quality Modeling and Control. Harper & Row, 1987.

J. Arle and F. Wagner, “Effects of anthropogenic salinisation on the ecological status of macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Werra River (Thuringia, Germany),” Hydrobiologia, vol. 701, no. 1, pp. 129–148, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10750-012-1265-z.

A. Nędzarek, A. Tórz, and J. Kubiak, “Oxygen conditions and trophic state of Lake Głębokie (Szczecin, Poland) in the years 2008-2010,” Limnological Review, vol. 10, no. 3–4, pp. 163–172, Jan. 2010, doi: 10.2478/v10194-011-0019-z.

Z. Xu and Y. J. Xu, “Determination of Trophic State Changes with Diel Dissolved Oxygen: A Case Study in a Shallow Lake,” Water Environment Research, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 1970–1979, 2015, doi: 10.2175/106143015X14362865226716.

H. Siwek, M. Włodarczyk, and R. Czerniawski, “Trophic State and Oxygen Conditions of Waters Aerated with Pulverising Aerator: The Results from Seven Lakes in Poland,” Water, vol. 10, no. 2, Art. no. 219, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.3390/w10020219.

P. Harremoës, “Immediate and delayed oxygen depletion in rivers,” Water Research, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1093–1098, Jan. 1982, doi: 10.1016/0043-1354(82)90124-5.


Abstract Views: 49
PDF Downloads: 35

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share