Multi-Objective Optimal Allocation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations and Distributed Generators in Radial Distribution Systems using Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms

  • V. K. B. Ponnam Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Acharya Nagarjuna University, India
  • K. Swarnasri Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, RVR & JC College of Engineering, India


The acceptance rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the transport industry has increased substantially due to the augmented interest towards sustainable transportation initiatives. However, their impact in terms of increased power demand on the electric power market can increase real power losses, decrease voltage profile, and consequently decrease voltage stability margins. It is necessary to install Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs) and Distributed Generators (DGs) at optimal locations to decrease the EV load effect in the Radial Distribution System (RDS). This paper addresses a multi-objective optimization technique to obtain simultaneous EVCS & DG placement and sizing. The problem is formulated to optimize real power losses, Average Voltage Deviation Index (AVDI), and Voltage Stability Index (VSI) of the electrical distribution system. Simulation studies were performed on the standard IEEE 33-bus and 69-bus test systems. Harries Hawk Optimization (HHO) and Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithms were selected to minimize the system objectives. The simulation outcomes reveal that the proposed approach improved system performance in all aspects. Among HHO and TLBO, HHO is reasonably successful in accomplishing the desired goals.

Keywords: Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs), renewable energy sources, Distributed Generators (DGs), Average Voltage Deviation Index (AVDI), Voltage Stability Index (VSI), Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO), Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO)


Download data is not yet available.


S. Wan, T. Zhu, Y. G. Luo, S. Zhang, “Large scale EVs charging scheduling ensuring secure and efficient operation of traffic and distribution”, World Electric Vehicle Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 605-612, 2015 DOI:

K. Schneider, C. Gerkensmeyer, M. K. Meyer, R. Fletcher, “Impact assessment of plug-in hybrid vehicles on pacific northwest distribution systems”, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting-Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, USA, July 20-24, 2008 DOI:

A. Shukla, K. Verma, R. Kumar, “Voltage-dependent modelling of fast charging electric vehicle load considering battery characteristics”, IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 221-230, 2018 DOI:

M. E. Amoli, K. Choma, J. Stefani, “Rapid-charge electric-vehicle stations”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 1883-1887, 2010 DOI:

A. Hajimiragha, C. A. Canizares, M. W. Fowler, A. Elkamel, “Optimal transition to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Ontario, Canada, considering the electricity-grid limitations”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 690-701, 2010 DOI:

Y. A. Alhazmi, H. A. Mostafa, M. M. A. Salama, “Optimal allocation for electric vehicle charging stations using trip success ratio”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 91, pp. 101-116, 2017 DOI:

A. Wanitschke, O. Arnhold, “Multi-objective optimization of an autobahn BEV charging station supplied by renewable energy”, World Electric Vehicle Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 911-922, 2016 DOI:

G. H. Fox, “Electric vehicle charging stations: Are we prepared?”, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 32-38, 2013 DOI:

D. Garas, G. O. Collantes, M. A. Nicholas, City of vancouver EV infrastructure strategy report, Working Paper–UCD-ITSWP-16-04, University of California at Davis, 2016

P. S. Barzani, A. R. Ghahnavieh, H. K. Karegar, “Optimal fast charging station placing and sizing”, Applied Energy, Vol. 125, pp. 289-299, 2014 DOI:

Z. Liu, F. Wen, G. Ledwich, “Optimal planning of electric-vehicle charging stations in distribution systems”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 102-110, 2013 DOI:

M. Miralinaghi, B. B. Keskin, Y. Lou, A. M. Roshandeh, “Capacitated refueling station location problem with traffic deviations over multiple time periods”, Networks and Spatial Economics, Vol. 17, pp. 129–151, 2017 DOI:

J. Y. Yong, V. K. Ramachandaramurthy, K. M. Tan, N. Mithulananthan, “A review on the state-of-the-art technologies of electric vehicle, its impacts and prospects”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 49, pp. 365-385, 2015 DOI:

H. Ma, Z. Yang, P. You, M. Fei, “Multi-objective biogeography-based optimization for dynamic economic emission load dispatch considering plug-in electric vehicles charging”, Energy, Vol. 135, pp. 101-111, 2017 DOI:

Z. Yang, K. Li, Q. Niu, Y. Xue, A. Foley, “A self-learning TLBO based dynamic economic/environmental dispatch considering multiple plug-in electric vehicle loads”, Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, Vol. 2, pp. 298–307, 2014 DOI:

R. Abbassi, “SOGI-based flexible grid connection of PV power three phase converters under non-ideal grid conditions”, Engineering Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 5195-5200, 2020 DOI:

S. Deb, K. Tammi, K. Kalita, P. Mahanta, “Impact of electric vehicle charging station load on distribution network”, Energies, Vol. 11, No. 1, Article ID 178, 2018 DOI:

G. Battapothula, C. Yammani, S. Maheswarapu, “Multi-objective simultaneous optimal planning of electrical vehicle fast charging stations and DGs in distribution system”, Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, Vol. 7, pp. 923–934, 2019 DOI:

S. K. Injeti, V. K. Thunuguntla, “Optimal integration of DGs into radial distribution network in the presence of plug-in electric vehicles to minimize daily active power losses and to improve the voltage profile of the system using bioinspired optimization algorithms”, Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Vol. 5, Article ID 3, 2020 DOI:

G. Battapothula, C. Yammani, S. Maheswarapu, “Multi-objective optimal planning of FCSs and DGs in distribution system with future EV load enhancement”, IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 128-139, 2019 DOI:

M. Dixit, R. Roy, “PSO-CFA based optimal placement of EVs in radial distribution network for loss minimization”, IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies, Coimbatore, India, March 5-7, 2015 DOI:

J. J. Jamian, M. W. Mustafa, H. Mokhlis, M. A. Baharudin, “Simulation study on optimal placement and sizing of battery switching station units using artificial bee colony algorithm”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 55, pp. 592-601, 2014 DOI:

M. S. K. Reddy, K. Selvajyothi, “Optimal placement of electric vehicle charging stations in radial distribution system along with reconfiguration”, 1st International Conference on Energy, Systems and Information Processing, Chennai, India, July 4-6, 2019 DOI:

R. V. Rao, “Review of applications of TLBO algorithm and a tutorial for beginners to solve the unconstrained and constrained optimization problems”, Decision Science Letters, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-30, 2016 DOI:

A. A. Heidari, S. Mirjalili, H. Faris, I. Aljarah, M. Mafarja, H. Chen, “Harris hawks optimization: Algorithm and applications”, Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 97, pp. 849-872, 2019 DOI:

P. V. K. Babu, K. Swarnasri, P. Vijetha, “A three phase unbalanced power flow method for secondary distribution system”, Advances in Modelling and Analysis B, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 139-144, 2018 DOI:

M. S. S. Danish, T. Senjyu, S. M. S. Danish, N. R. Sabory,Narayanan K, P. Mandal, “A recap of voltage stability indices in the past three decades”, Energies, Vol. 12, No. 8, Article ID 1544, 2019 DOI:

M. E. Baran, F. F. Wu, “Optimal capacitor placement on radial distribution systems”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 725-734, 1989 DOI:

S. Kansal, V. Kumar, B. Tyagi, “Optimal placement of different type of DG sources in distribution networks”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 752–760, 2013 DOI:

F. Mwasilu, J. J. Justo, E. K. Kim, T. D. Do, J. W. Jung, “Electric vehicles and smart grid interaction: A review on vehicle to grid and renewable energy sources integration”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 34, pp. 501–516, 2014 DOI:


Abstract Views: 316
PDF Downloads: 231

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share