Highly Stable Photonic Local Carriers for Phased Array Receiver System
In this paper, a complete system analysis of photonic local carrier generation technique has been investigated. The generated carrier is potentially suitable to replace the existing microwave/RF Local Carrier (LC) used in commercial Low Noise Blocks (LNBs) for the Phased Array (PA) receiver system. The optical LC generated from heterodyning of two commercialized lasers is being stabilized with an Optical Frequency Lock Loop (OFLL). This approach resulted in a generated carrier at the Ku-band (10.7GHz to 12.75GHz) signal received from a PA receiver. Various loop parameters of the OFLL have been investigated to comply with the requirements of the commercial LNBs The proposed OFLL shows a 2400 fold improvement in the frequency stability at 1000s averaging time compared to its free running condition. It is also demonstrated that with an optimized loop gain of 30dB, the loop response time of the proposed OFLL becomes 11μs.
S. H. Yim, S.-B. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and S. E. Park, "Optical phase locking of two extended-cavity diode lasers with ultra-low phase noise for atom interferometry," Applied Physics B, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 491-495, Jun. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-013-5629-5
M. Dąbrowski, R. Chrapkiewicz, and W. Wasilewski, "Hamiltonian design in readout from room-temperature Raman atomic memory," Optics Express, vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 26076-26091, Oct. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.026076
M. Parniak, A. Leszczyński, and W. Wasilewski, "Coupling of four-wave mixing and Raman scattering by ground-state atomic coherence," Physical Review A, vol. 93, no. 5, p. 053821, May 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.053821
C.-H. Shin and M. Ohtsu, "Heterodyne optical phase-locked loop by confocal Fabry-Periot cavity coupled AlGaAs lasers," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 297-300, Apr. 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/68.53268
M. Lyon and S. D. Bergeson, "Precision spectroscopy using a partially stabilized frequency comb," Applied Optics, vol. 53, no. 23, pp. 5163-5168, Aug. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.005163
R. Matthey, S. Schilt, D. Werner, C. Affolderbach, L. Thévenaz, and G. Mileti, "Diode laser frequency stabilisation for water-vapour differential absorption sensing," Applied Physics B, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 477-485, Nov. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-006-2358-z
M. R. H. Khan and M. A. Hoque, "A photonic frequency discriminator based laser linewidth estimation technique," International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 65-74, Apr. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2019.04.008
G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," Applied Physics B, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 363-365, Aug. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-004-1559-6
M. R. H. Khan, M. F. Islam, G. Sarowar, T. Reza, and M. A. Hoque, "Carrier generation using a dual-frequency distributed feedback waveguide laser for phased array antenna (PAA)," Journal of the European Optical Society-Rapid Publications, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 30, Oct. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41476-017-0058-4
M. R. H. Khan et al., "Dual-Frequency Distributed Feedback Laser With Optical Frequency Locked Loop for Stable Microwave Signal Generation," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 24, no. 16, pp. 1431-1433, Aug. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2012.2205379
U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, "Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers," Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 242-243, Jan. 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1149573
T. Stace, A. N. Luiten, and R. P. Kovacich, "Laser offset-frequency locking using a frequency-to-voltage converter," Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1635-1637, Sep. 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/9/9/038
J. Hughes and C. Fertig, "A widely tunable laser frequency offset lock with digital counting," Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 79, no. 10, p. 103104, Oct. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2999544
A. Castrillo, E. Fasci, G. Galzerano, G. Casa, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, "Offset-frequency locking of extended-cavity diode lasers for precision spectroscopy of water at 138μm," Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 21, pp. 21851-21860, Oct. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.021851
N. Strauß, I. Ernsting, S. Schiller, A. Wicht, P. Huke, and R.-H. Rinkleff, "A simple scheme for precise relative frequency stabilization of lasers," Applied Physics B, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 21-28, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-007-2668-9
S. Schilt, R. Matthey, D. Kauffmann-Werner, C. Affolderbach, G. Mileti, and L. Thévenaz, "Laser offset-frequency locking up to 20 GHz using a low-frequency electrical filter technique," Applied Optics, vol. 47, no. 24, pp. 4336-4344, Aug. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.47.004336
D. M. Perisic, A. C. Zoric, and Z. Gavric, "A Frequency Multiplier Based on Time Recursive Processing," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2104-2108, Dec. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1499
M. R. H. Khan, M. Burla, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, and W. van Etten, "Phase noise analysis of an rf local oscillator signal generated by optical heterodyning of two lasers," in 14th Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter, Brussels, Belgium, Nov. 2009, pp. 161-164.
F. Friederich et al., "Phase-locking of the beat signal of two distributed-feedback diode lasers to oscillators working in the MHz to THz range," Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 8621-8629, Apr. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.008621
D.-H. Yang and Y.-Q. Wang, "Preliminary results of an optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard at Peking University," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1000-1002, Dec. 1991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/19.119781
E. Casini, R. D. Gaudenzi, and A. Ginesi, "DVB-S2 modem algorithms design and performance over typical satellite channels," International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 281-318, 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sat.791
ETSI EN 301 790 V1.5.1 (2009-05): Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Interaction channel for satellite distribution systems. Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: ETSI, 2009.
C. Toumazou, G. S. Moschytz, and B. Gilbert, Eds., Trade-Offs in Analog Circuit Design: The Designer's Companion. Springer US, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/b117184
D. R. Stephens, Phase-Locked Loops for Wireless Communications: Digital, Analog and Optical Implementations, 2nd ed. Springer US, 2002.
F. M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques, 3rd ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/0471732699
H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Lee, and H. S. Suh, "Widely Tunable External Cavity Laser Diode Injection Locked to an Optical Frequency Comb," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1066-1068, Jul. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2010.2049101
E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812798
S. Knappe et al., "Microfabricated atomic clocks and magnetometers," Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. S318-S322, May 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1464-4258/8/7/S04
B. Sprenger, J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, "Atmospheric transfer of optical and radio frequency clock signals," Optics Letters, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 965-967, Apr. 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.34.000965
M. Lipka, M. Parniak, and W. Wasilewski, "Optical frequency locked loop for long-term stabilization of broad-line DFB laser frequency difference," Applied Physics B, vol. 123, no. 9, p. 238, Aug. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-017-6808-6
B. Chen, K. Wu, L. Yan, J. Xie, and E. Zhang, "Stabilization of synthetic wavelength using offset-frequency locking for the measurement accuracy improvement of the laser synthetic wavelength interferometer," Optical Engineering, vol. 57, no. 3, p. 034106, Mar. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.57.3.034106
MetricsAbstract Views: 80
PDF Downloads: 54
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.