Interface Structure and Elements Diffusion of As-Cast and Annealed Ductile Iron/Stainless Steel Bimetal Castings

  • M. Ramadan Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia and Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Volume: 8 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 2709-2714 | April 2018 |


Bimetal casting is considered to a promising technique for the production of high performance function materials. Heat treatment process for bimetal castings became an essential tool for improving interface structure and metallurgical diffusion bond. Molten iron alloy with carbon equivalent of 4.40 is poured into sand mold cavities containing solid 304 stainless steel strips insert. Specimens are heated to 7200C in an electrical heating furnace and holded at 720 0C for 60min and 180min. For as-cast specimens, a good coherent interface structure of ductile cast iron/304 stainless bimetal with four layers interfacial microstructure are obtained. Low temperature annealing at 720oC has a significat effect on the interface layers structure, where, three layers of interface structure are obtained after 180min annealing time because of the complete dissolving of thin layer of ferrite and multi carbides (Layer 2). Low temperature annealing shows a significant effect on the diffusion of C and otherwise shows slightly effect on the diffusion of Cr and Ni. Plearlite phase of Layer 3 is trsformed to spheroidal shape instead of lamallar shape in as-cast bimetals by low tempeature annealing at 720oC. The percent of the performed spheroidal cementit increases by increasing anneaaling time. Hardness of interface layers is changed by low temperauture annealing due to the significant carbon deffussion.

Keywords: annealing, interface, bimetal, stainless steel, ductile iron, composite


Download data is not yet available.


H. Danesh Manesh, A. Karimi Taheri, “Bond strength and formability of an aluminum-clad steel sheet”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds Vol. 361, No. 1-2, pp. 138–143, 2003 DOI:

M. Paramsothy, N. Srikanth, M. Gupta, “Solidification processed Mg/Al bimetal macrocomposite: Microstructure and mechanical properties”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 461, No. 1-2, pp. 200–208, 2008 DOI:

B. Kurt, C. Adnan, “Interface structure of diffusion bonded duplex stainless steel and medium carbon steel couple”, Materials Characterization, Vol. 60, No. 9, pp. 1035–1040, 2009 DOI:

B. Xiong, Z. Xu, Q. Yan, B. Lu, C. Cai, “Effects of SiC volume fraction and aluminum particulate size on interfacial reactions in SiC nanoparticulate reinforced aluminum matrix composites”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 509, No. 4, pp. 6700–6704, 2011 DOI:

L. Guobin, W. Jianjun, L. Xiangzhi, L. Guiyun, “The properties and application of bi-metal hot-forging die”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.75, No. 1-3, pp. 152–156, 1998 DOI:

L. Mehnen, H. Pfutzner, E. Kaniusas, “Magnetostrictive amorphous bimetal sensors”, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 215–216, pp. 779–81, 2000 DOI:

J. Nakano, Y. Miwa, T. Tsukada, M. Kikuchi, S. Kita, Y. Nemoto, H. Tsuji, S. Jitsukawa, “Characterization of 316L(N)-IG SS joint produced by hot isostatic pressing technique”, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 307-311, No. 2, pp. 1568–1572, 2002 DOI:

O. Yilmaz, H. Celik, “Electrical and thermal properties of the interface at diffusion-bonded and soldered 304 stainless steel and copper bimetal”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 141, No. 1, pp. 67–76, 2003 DOI:

B. V. Krishna, P. Venugopal, K. P. Rao, “Co-extrusion of dissimilar sintered P/M preforms—An explored route to produce bimetallic tubes”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 407, No. 1-2, pp. 77–83, 2005 DOI:

M. Simsir, L. Cenk Kumruoglu, A. Ozer, “An investigation into stainless-steel/structural-alloy-steel bimetal produced by shell mould casting”, Materials and Design, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 264–270, 2009 DOI:

ASM, ASM Handbook, Volume 4:Heat Treating, ASM International, 1991

X. Gomez, J. Echeberria, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon steel A210–superalloy Sanicro 28 bimetallic tubes”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 348, No. 1-2, pp. 180–191, 2003 DOI:

N. Masahashi, S. Watanabe, N. Nomura, S. Semboshi, S. Hanada, “Laminates based on an iron aluminide intermetallic alloy and a CrMo steel”, Intermetallics, Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 717–726, 2005 DOI:

L. Y. Sheng, F. Yang, T. F. Xi, C. Lai, H. Q. Ye, “Influence of heat treatment on interface of Cu/Al bimetal composite fabricated by cold rolling”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 1468–1473, 2011 DOI:

C. Y. Sun, L. Li , M. W. Fu, Q. J. Zhou, “Element diffusion model of bimetallic hot deformation in metallurgical bonding process”, Materials and Design, Vol. 94, pp 433–443, 2016 DOI:

M. Ramadan, “Interface Characterization of Bimetallic Casting with a 304 Stainless Steel Surface Layer and a Gray Cast Iron Base”, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 1120-1121, pp. 993-998, 2015 DOI:

T. Wrobel, “Characterization of Bimetallic Castings with an Austenitic Working Surface Layer and an Unalloyed Cast Steel Base”, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 1711–1717, 2014 DOI:

M. Ramadan, K. M. Hafez K. S. Abdel Halim, N. Fathy, T. Chiba, H. Sato, Y. Watanabe, “Influence of Heat Treatment on Interface Structure of Stainless Steel/Gray Iron Bimetallic Layered Castings”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 873, pp. 3-8, 2017 DOI:

ASM, ASM Handbook, Volume 15: Casting, ASM International, 1991

M. Ramadan, M.Takita, H. Nomura, N. El-Bagoury, “Semi-solid processing of ultrahigh-carbon steel castings”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 430, No. 1-2, pp. 285–291, 2006 DOI:

T. Wróbel, “Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel–grey cast iron”, Archives of Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 118-125, 2011


Abstract Views: 436
PDF Downloads: 168

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)