Effect of Applied Pressure on the Mechanical Properties of 6061 Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints Prepared by Friction Stir Welding

  • J. A. Al-jarrah Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia
  • A. Ibrahim Chemical and Material Science Engineering Department, Engineering College, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia and Industrial Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Fayom University, Egypt
  • S. Sawlaha Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia and Mechanical Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan


This paper investigates the effect of axial force on the surface appearance and mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy welded joints prepared by friction stir welding. The applied pressure varies from 1.44 to 10.07 MPa. The applied pressure was calculated from the axial force which exerted by a spring loaded cell designed for this purpose. Defect free joints obtained at an applied pressure of 3.62 MPa. The mechanical properties of the welded joints were evaluated through microhardness and tensile tests at room temperature. From this investigation, it was found that the joint produced with an applied pressure of 5.76 MPa exhibits superior tensile strength compared to other welded joints. The fracture of this joint happened at the base material.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminum alloys, applied pressure, mechanical properties


Download data is not yet available.


L. P. Troger, E.A Straka, “Microstructural and mechanical characterization of superplastic 6xxx aluminum alloy”, Material Science and Engineering, Vol. A277, No.1, pp. 102-113, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(99)00543-2

T. Evern, B. Ogel, “Influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of A6066 alloy”, Turkish J. Eng. Env. Sci., Vol. 31, pp. 53-60, 2007

K. Rohit, K. Ratnesh, R. Singh, A. K. Bajpai, “Mechanical properties of friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, Vol. 2, No. 8, pp. 74-80, 2013

Y. M. Zhang, C. Pan, A. T. Male, “Improved microstructure and properties of 6061aluminum alloy weldments using double sided arc welding process”, Metallurgical and Material Transaction A, Vol. 31A, No. 10, pp. 2537-2543, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-000-0198-8

N. Shanmuga Sundaram, N. Murugan, “Tensile behavior of dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys”, Materials and Design, Vol. 31, No. 9, pp. 4184–4193, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.04.035

G. Elatharasana, V. S. Senthil Kumarb, “An experimental analysis and optimization of process parameter on friction stir welding of AA 6061-T6 aluminum alloy using RSM”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 64, pp. 1227-1234, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.202

K. Elangovan, V. Balasubramanian, S. Babu, “Predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints by a mathematical model”, Materials and Design, Vol. 30, pp.188- 193, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.04.037

J. A. Al-Jarrah, S. Sawalha, T. A. Abumansour, M. Ibrahim, M. Al-Rashdan, D. A. Al-Qahsi, “Welding quality and mechanical properties of aluminum joints prepared by friction stir welding”, Material and design, Vol. 56, pp. 929-936, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.12.003

T. Hirata, T. Oguri, H. Hagino, T. Tanaka, S. W. Chung, Y. Takigawa, K. Higashi, “Influence of friction stir welding parameters on grain size and formability in 5083 aluminum alloy”, Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 456, No. 1-2, pp. 344-349, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.12.079

R. D. By, R. Fu, R. C. Sun, F. C. Zhang, H. J. Liu, “Improvement of formation quality for friction stir welded joints”, Welding Journal, Vol. 91, No. 6, pp. 169-173, 2012

S. Rajakumar, C. Muralidharan, V. Balasubramanian, “Influence of friction stir welding process and tool parameters on strength properties of AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy joints”, Materials and Design, Vol. 32, pp. 535-549, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.08.025

S. Rajakumar, C. Muralidharan, V. Balasubramanian, “Establishing empirical relationships to predict grain size and tensile strength of friction stir welded AA 6061-T6 aluminium alloy joints”, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, Vol. 20, pp. 1863–18722, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60387-3

M. Jayaraman, R. Sivasubramanian, V. Balasubramanian, “Establishing relationship between the base metal properties and friction stir welding process parameters of cast aluminum alloys”, Materials and Design, Vol. 31, pp.4567-4576, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.03.040

W. B. Lee, Y.M. Yeon, S. B. Jung, “Mechanical properties related to microstructural variation of 6061 Al alloy joints by friction stir welding”, Material Tranactions, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 1700-1705, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.45.1700

J. Q. Sua, T. W. Nelson, C. J. Sterling, “Microstructure evolution during FSW/FSP of high strength aluminum alloys”, Mater Sci. Eng., Vol. 405, pp. 277-286, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.06.009

J. J. Muhsin, H. Moneer, Tolepheh, A. M. Muhammad, “Effect of friction stir welding parameters (rotation and transverse) speed the transient temperature distribution in friction stir welding of AA 7020-T53”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 436-446, 2012

S. Wei, C. Hao, J. Chen, “Study of friction stir welding of 01420 aluminum-lithium alloy”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 453, pp. 170-177, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.10.081

N. T. Kumbhar, K. Bhanumurthy, “Friction stir welding of Al 6061 alloy”, Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 22, pp. 63-74, 2008

A. R. Ros, K. Manisekar, V. Balasubramainan, “Effect of axial force on microstructure and tensile properties of friction stir welded AZ61A magnesium alloy”, Trans. Nonferrous Met. So. China, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 974-984, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(11)60809-1

T. V. Christy, N. Murugan, S. Kumar, “A Comparative study on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al 6061 alloy and the MMC Al 6061/TiB2/12P”, J. of Minerals & Materials Charac. and Eng., Vol. 9, No.1, pp. 57-65, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2010.91005


Abstract Views: 506
PDF Downloads: 198

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)