Taxonomy of Manufacturing Flexibility at Manufacturing Companies Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithms, Support Vector Machines and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis
Manufacturing flexibility is a multidimensional concept and manufacturing companies act differently in using these dimensions. The purpose of this study is to investigate taxonomy and identify dominant groups of manufacturing flexibility. Dimensions of manufacturing flexibility are extracted by content analysis of literature and expert judgements. Manufacturing flexibility was measured by using a questionnaire developed to survey managers of manufacturing companies. The sample size was set at 379. To identify dominant groups of flexibility based on dimensions of flexibility determined, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Imperialist Competitive Algorithms (ICAs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) were used by cluster validity indices. The best algorithm for clustering was SVMs with three clusters, designated as leading delivery-based flexibility, frugal flexibility and sufficient plan-based flexibility.
A. Cingoz, A. A. Akdogan, “Strategic Flexibility, Environmental Dynamism, and Innovation Performance: An Empirical Study”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 582–589, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.528
S. Genchev, G. Willis, “A note on manufacturing flexibility as a firm-specific dynamic capability”, Manufacturing Letters, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 100–103, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mfglet.2014.07.002
G. Copani, M. Urgo, “New business models and configuration approachesfor focused-flexibility manufacturing systems”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 10–15, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2012.05.031
D. Upton, “The Management of Manufacturing Flexibility”, California Management Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 72-88, 1994
G. Seebacher, H. Winkler, “Evaluating Flexibility in Discrete Manufacturing Based on Performance and Efficiency”, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 153, No. 2, pp. 340–351, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.03.018
R. J. Vokurka, S. W. O`Leary-Kelly, “A review of empirical research on manufacturing flexibility”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 485–501, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(00)00031-0
S. Kara, B. Kayis, “Manufacturing flexibility and variability: an overview”, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 466-478, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17410380410547870
A. Oke, “A framework for analysing manufacturing flexibility”, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 25, No. 10, pp. 973-996, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01443570510619482
J. H. Saleh, G. Mark, N. C. Jordan, “Flexibility: a Multi-Disciplinary Literature Review and a Research Agenda for Designing Flexible Engineering Systems”, Journal of Engineering Design, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 307-323, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09544820701870813
T. A. Boyle, M. S. Rathje, “An empirical examination of the best practices to ensure manufacturing flexibility Lean alignment”, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 348-366, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17410380910936792
Y. P. Gupta, T. M. Somers,“Business strategy, manufacturing flexibility, and organizational performance relationships: a path analysis approach”, Production and Operations Management, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 204-233, 1996 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1937-5956.1996.tb00395.x
S. Gustavsson, “Flexibility and productivity in complex processes”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 801-808, 1988 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00207548408942500
K. Boyer, G. K. Leong, P. T. Ward, L. J. Krajewski, “Unlocking the potential of advanced manufacturing technologies”, Journal of Operations Management,Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 331-347, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(97)00009-0
P. Nemetz, Bridging the strategic outcome measurement gap in manufacturing organizations, in Ettlie, J.E., Burstein, M.C, 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2189-4_8
F. F. Suarez, M. A. Cusumano, C. H. Fine, “An empirical study of manufacturing flexibility in printed circuit board assembly”, Operations Research, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 223-49, 1996. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.44.1.223
C. H. Wood, L. P. Ritzman, D. Sharma, Intended and achieved competitive priorities: measures, frequencies and financial impact, in Ettlie, J.E., Burstein, M.cC. and Feigenbaum, A. (Eds), Manufacturing Strategy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2189-4_22
S. H. Chang, R. J. Lin, J. Chen, L. H. Huang, “Manufacturing Flexibility and Manufacturing Proactiveness Empirical Evidence from the Motherboard Industry”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 105, No. 8, pp. 1115-1132, 2005.
J. Browne, D. Dubois, K. Rathmil, S. P. Sethi, K. E. Stecke, (1984)Classification of Flexible Manufacturing Systems”, The FMS Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 114-117, 1984.
S. H. Chang, C. L. Yang, H. C. Cheng, C. Sheu, “Manufacturing Flexibility and Business Strategy: An Empirical Study of Small and Medium Sized Firms”, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 83, No. 3, pp. 13-26, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5273(02)00263-3
C. Gaimon, V. Singhal, “Flexibility and The Choice of Manufacturing Facilities Under Short Product Life Cycles”, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 211-223, 1992 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(92)90094-P
L. L. Koste, M. K. Malhotra, “A theoretical framework for analyzing the dimensions of manufacturing flexibility”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 75-93, 1999 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(99)00010-8
P. S. Adler, “Managing Flexible Automation”, California Management Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 34-56, 1988 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/41166513
R. Mishra, A. P. Pundir, G. Ganapathy, “Assessment of manufacturing flexibility”, A review of research and conceptual Framework, Management Research Review, Vol. 37, No. 8, pp. 750-776, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-03-2013-0055
D. M. Upton, “The management of manufacturing flexibility”, California Management Review, Vol. 2, No. 36, pp. 72-89, 1997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/41165745
A. D. Toni, S. Tonchia, “Definition and linkages Between Operational and Strategic Flexibilities”, Omega, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 525-540, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2004.07.014
A. Oke, “Linking manufacturing flexibility to innovation performance in manufacturing plants”, Journal Production Economics, Vol. 143, No. 4, pp. 242–247, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2011.09.014
Y. P. Gupta, S. Goyal, “Flexibility of Manufacturing Systems: Concepts and Measurement”, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 119-135, 1989 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(89)90206-3
R. Beach, A. P. Muhleman, D. H. R. Price, A. Paterson, J. A. Sharp, “Review of Manufacturing Flexibility”, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 122, No. 2, pp. 41-57, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(99)00062-4
R. Narain, R. C. Yadav, J. Sarkis, J. J. Cordeiro, “The strategic Implications of Flexibility in Manufacturing Systems”, International Journal of Agile Management Systems,Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 202-213, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14654650010356112
R. V. Ramesesh, M. D. Jayakumar, “Measurement of manufacturing flexibility: a value based approach”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 446-69, 1991 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-6963(91)90005-I
A. K. Sethi, S. P. Sethi, “Flexibility in manufacturing: a survey”, International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 289-328, 1990 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00186471
A. Y. Chang, “Prioritising the types of manufacturing flexibility in an uncertain environment”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 50, No. 8, 2133–2149, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.565156
R. Sawhney, “Interplay between uncertainty and flexibility across the value-chain:Towards a transformation model of manufacturing flexibility”, Journal of Operations Management,Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 476–493, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2005.11.008
C. P. Patel, “Role of manufacturing flexibility in managing duality of formalization and environmental uncertainty in emerging firms”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 143–162, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2010.07.007
L. K. Koste, M. K. Malhotra, S. Sharma, “Measuring dimensions of manufacturing flexibility”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 171-196, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2004.01.001
N. Slack, “Flexibility as A Manufacturing Objective”, International of Operations and Production Management,Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 5-13, 1983 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/eb054696
B. Dreyer, K. Gronhaug, “Uncertainty, flexibility, and sustained competitive advantage”, Journal of Business Research ,Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 484–494, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00315-6
G. N. Punj, D. W. Stewart, “Cluster Analysis in marketing redearch: Review and suggestions for application”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 134-148, 1983 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378302000204
M. Sattlecker, R. Baker, N. Stone, C. Bessant, “Support vector machine ensembles for breast cancer type prediction from mid-FTIR micro-calcification spectra”, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, Vol. 107, No. 2, pp. 363-70, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemolab.2011.05.007
E. Atashpaz-Gargari, C. Lucas, “Imperialist Competitive Algorithm: An Algorithm for Optimization inspired by imperialistic Competition”, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Singapore, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 4661–67, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CEC.2007.4425083
A. Kaveh, S. Talatahari, “Optimum design of skeletal structures using imperialist competitive algorithm”, Computers & Structures, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 1220-1229, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2010.06.011
T. Niknam, E. Taherian Fard, N. Pourjafarian, A. Rousta, “An efficient hybrid algorithm based on modified imperialist competitive algorithm and K-means for data clustering”, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 306-317, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2010.10.001
C. Lucas, Z. Nasiri-Gheidari, F. Tootoonchian, “Application of an imperialist competitive algorithm to the design of a linear induction motor”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 51, No. 7, pp. 1407- 1411, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.01.014
A. Khabbazi, E. Atashpaz-Gargari, C. Lucas, “Imperialist competitive algorithm for minimum bit error rate beamforming”, International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation,Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 125-133, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBIC.2009.022781
J. C. Bezdek, N. R. Pal, “Some new indexes of cluster validity”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics NPART B: CYBERNETICS , Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 301-315, 1988 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/3477.678624
B. Desgraupes, “clusterCrit: Clustering Indices”, R package version,Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 4-5, 2013. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=clusterCrit.
K. P. Agrawal, S. Garg, P. Patel, “Performance Measures for Densed and Arbitrary Shaped Clusters”, International Journal of Computer Science & Communication, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 338-350, 2015
MetricsAbstract Views: 427
PDF Downloads: 195
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.